Will CBD Oil Show Up On A Drug Test?

One of the most frequently asked questions, and biggest fears, people have when considering CBD for the first time is “Will CBD oil show up on a drug test?” For some people, particularly if their job depends on it, failing a drug test can have serious ramifications.

Drug tests typically only look for THC, which is the chemical compound in cannabis that makes you “high”.  So in short, CBD derived from hemp should not make you fail a drug test. However, some CBD products do contain amounts of THC.

You may have heard that CBD can be converted to THC by your stomach acids, but a 2017 study has since debunked that myth.

Where Does CBD Come From?

CBD Oil is one of the 100+ chemical compounds present in the cannabis plant.  CBD can be extracted from either marijuana or hemp. This is a central issue that has caused much confusion in the industry and can determine whether or not CBD oil will show up on a drug test.

What’s the Difference Between Marijuana and Hemp?

Both marijuana and hemp are varieties of the cannabis sativa plant.  They generally look and smell the same, but their chemical makeup is different.  The main difference is that marijuana typically contains 5 to 20% THC, while hemp contains only trace amounts of THC (less than 0.3%).

THC is the cannabinoid that makes you high.  So while you can’t get high from hemp, the trace amounts of THC in hemp could be problematic in regards to drug testing.

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Is CBD Legal?

In essence, the legality of CBD depends on whether it’s extracted from marijuana or from hemp. Marijuana has been illegal in the US since 1937, therefore CBD products derived from marijuana are also illegal.  Hemp on the other hand has gone through several legal changes over the last 5 years.  

The 2014 US Farm Bill defined industrial hemp as distinct from marijuana and authorized institutions in certain states to cultivate and conduct hemp research and pilot programs.

With the recent passage of the 2018 US Farm Bill, hemp has been fully legalized on a federal level, which includes hemp derived products such as CBD.  In essence, hemp-derived CBD products are legal in all 50 states, but the exact application of the law is still murky in some areas..

What Type of CBD Products Contain THC?

Besides the source from which the CBD is extracted from (marijuana vs hemp), you’ll also want to consider the type of CBD hemp product you’re consuming.  You’ll need to understand the difference between full spectrum CBD, broad spectrum CBD, and CBD isolate.

In a nutshell…

Full Spectrum CBD =
Whole plant hemp extract, including trace amounts of THC up to 0.3%

Broad Spectrum CDB =
Whole plant hemp extract, with all THC removed

CBD Isolate =
Contains CBD only, with no other compounds from the hemp plant

As you can see, only full spectrum CBD products contain THC.  Although it only contains tiny amounts which are not enough to have any intoxicating effects, there is a slight chance that it could show up on a drug test.  There are also factors such as your metabolism determining how long CBD stays in your system, how much CBD oil you take and how long you’ve been using it. If you are concerned about failing a drug test, we suggest you DO NOT consume full spectrum CBD products.

All Tessera Naturals products are made with broad spectrum CBD.  Broad spectrum CBD oil begins as a full spectrum extract, but we go one step further and use a purification process which selectively removes the trace amounts of THC from our hemp oil, resulting in a 0% THC product.

Broad spectrum products are generally safe to consume without the risk of failing a drug testing.  That being said, it depends on the testing methods and standards of the lab administering your drug test. 

As mentioned, most labs only search for THC and do not screen for CBD.  While highly unlikely, there may be some testing facilities that check for a spectrum of cannabinoids and could trigger a false positive on a drug test.  This is similar to poppy seeds that can trigger a false positive test for opium. We suggest contacting your lab and asking them about their testing methods.

CBD isolate products do not contain any THC, nor any other cannabinoids, and are practically impossible to trigger a positive drug test.  Unfortunately, consuming CBD isolate products are not as effective as full spectrum or broad spectrum CBD as they do not produce the beneficial “entourage effect” you get from the whole plant extract.

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Quality Matters Whether CBD Oil Will Show Up on a Drug Test

Due to the lack of regulations on the CBD industry, you need to make sure you’re purchasing your CBD products from a reputable source.  Unfortunately, advertised THC levels in some CBD products can be unreliable.  There have been many cases of mislabeling, cross contamination, false claims or flat out deception from some manufacturers regarding the amount of CBD and THC in their products.

Make sure to know whether the CBD products comes from marijuana or hemp.  Read labels and ensure it lists whether it is a full spectrum, broad spectrum or isolate.  Also, look for specific amounts of CBD and THC contained in the product.

Lastly, make sure to review 3rd party lab tests confirming the amount of CBD and how much THC, if any, is in the product.

Note: Our product boxes were printed before the term “broad spectrum” became commonly acceptable and therefore states “full spectrum hemp extract”, but our labels clearly state the amount of CBD in each product, as well as listing 0% THC in the ingredients.  We’ve updated all of our online content to reflect the newer broad spectrum terminology and we will be updating and reprinting our boxes in the near future.

Key Takeaways

  • CBD can be extracted from marijuana or hemp, but marijuana contains significant amounts of THC while hemp only contains up to 0.3% THC.
  • Drug tests only look for THC and do not screen for CBD, but some CBD products contain THC.
  • Full spectrum CBD contains trace amounts of THC, which may show up on a drug test.
  • Broad spectrum CBD and CBD isolate products do not contain any THC and should not show up on a drug test.
  • Read labels and review lab reports to confirm the content of CBD and THC in each product.
  • Do your due diligence to ensure the CBD products you purchase are high quality and from a reputable company.
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How Much CBD Should I Take?

One of the most common questions we receive is “How much CBD should I take?”  If you’ve tried hemp CBD but felt a little lost when it comes to dosage, you’re not alone.  Or perhaps you’re interested in trying CBD for the first time but don’t know where to start. Hint: start with our Beginner’s Guide to CBD.

Many people have tried taking CBD and say that “it didn’t work”.  While there are many reasons why CBD may not have worked for them, one of the main issues could be that they did not put enough time or effort into establishing the most effective dose for them.

So, the answer to the questions of how much CBD you should I take… well, it depends.

Probably not what you were hoping to hear, but unfortunately CBD dosage does not have a simple straightforward answer. Unfortunately, there is no commonly established standard dose for CBD and it is influenced by many factors we’ll cover below. Finding the right dose of CBD will take some trial and error.

Visit our CBD Dosage Calculator for a starting recommendation based on weight, condition and severity.

So How Much CBD Should I Take?

As mentioned, it will require a bit of experimentation to find the right dose of CBD for you.

We suggest starting with a low dose (10-20 mg of CBD per day) and see how you react.  You can slowly increase the dose over the next few days to find the most effective dose for you and your goals.

Most people stick to somewhere in the 10-80mg of CBD per day in the long run, with higher doses for more sever conditions or “flare ups”.

How Do I Calculate CBD dosage?

When trying to figure out how much CBD oil you should take, it’s important to understand how to calculate dosage in the first place.  

For CBD capsule, CBD pet treats and other edibles, the dosage is clearly listed on the package, just like any other labeled food item or supplement.

CBD tinctures are a bit different as they allow for flexibility. While the basic dose per serving is listed on the label, you can play around with how much CBD to take each time by using a little basic math.

For example, our Tessera Naturals tinctures come in two strengths, 500mg and 1000mg.  If you purchase the 500mg strength, that means there is 500 mgs of CBD in the entire bottle.  The size of the bottle is 30ml. The dropper in the bottle measures 1ml per dose, giving you 30 doses per bottle.  If you divide 500 mgs of CBD by 30 servings, you will get 16.6mg of CBD per serving.  

Like we said, you can be flexible and decide to take only half dropper, which will give you 8.3 mgs of CBD, or even quarter of a dropper, which will dispense 4.2 mgs of CBD.

We’ve created this graphic below which easily shows the different dosages per dropper for both 500mg and 1000mg tinctures.

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Common Factors That Affect CBD Dosage

The Type of CBD you Take

It’s important to understand whether the hemp CBD product is full spectrum, broad spectrum, or a CBD Isolate.  To read more about the difference between the three, see our previous blog article titled Full spectrum CBD vs Broad Spectrum CBD vs CBD Isolate.

The Method of Consuming CBD

There are many formats of consuming CBD.  Whether you use a CBD vape product, a CBD tinctures or consume CBD edibles, they will each offer different levels of absorption and bioavailability, which can be a large factor in dosage. See chart on absorption and bioavailability for different types of CBD products here.

Genetics and Lifestyle

Your genetics and individual chemistry play a huge role in how CBD will affect you. We like to use the analogy that CBD is similar to caffeine in that some people are just more sensitive to caffeine than others and will feel its effects much more while consuming far less.

Your lifestyle also plays a role in how CBD will affect you personally.  These factors can include diet, weight, metabolism, sleep patterns and stress levels.

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Serious Ailments vs General Wellness

Another factor in determining how much CBD you should take, is what you’re taking it for.  Are you suffering from severe chronic pain due to a debilitating condition such as Fibromyalgia or MS? Are you looking for general relaxation or to curb some bouts of anxiety from time to time?  Are you looking for better sleep? Or just seeking to add CBD hemp oil for balance and use it for you daily wellness regimen?  

The Quality of CBD Products

Lastly, the quality of CBD products you purchase will vastly influence the required dosage in order to reap its benefits.  Cheap, low quality hemp and CBD will not have the same attributes of a pure, organic, high quality hemp extract processed using the highest standards.

Can I Take Too Much CBD Oil?

To date, there has not been any reported fatal cases of cannabis related overdoses. A 2017 study confirmed that CBD, taken even in high doses up to 1,500 mg a day, is generally well tolerated by humans.

We suggest speaking with your doctor before introducing CBD (or any new supplement) to make sure it will not cause any complications or adverse drug interactions.

Key Takeaways

  • CBD dosing is not a one-size-fits-all, finding the optimal dose is an individual process that each person must undertake with some trial and error.
  • It’s always best to start with a low dose and slowly increase over time until you’ve found the most effective dose for you. 
  • Read labels and make sure you understand the amount of CBD in the entire package vs calculating the CBD for each dose.
  • Many factors can influence a person’s optimal dose of CBD such as the type of CBD, the method of ingestion, your genetics, lifestyle, goals and the quality of the CBD product itself.
  • Even at extremely high doses, CBD is generally well tolerated by humans.
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Does taking CBD for Migraines work? What About Other Treatments?

Taking CBD for migraines has been getting more attention lately as a safe alternative treatment. With the range of therapeutic benefits that CBD hemp oil provides, it’s no surprise that it is an effective option for alleviating the debilitating pain common with migraines.

CBD is a cannabinoid within the cannabis plant that isn’t psychoactive like its other primary cannabinoid, THC. For this reason, CBD is one of the most common constituents of medical marijuana, and is used to treat symptoms of epilepsy, chronic pain disorders, and inflammation.

Before we go over natural alternative treatments for migraines, and how hemp-derived CBD can help, we first need to understand the nature of migraines.

What is a Migraine?

A migraine is defined as a severe, chronic, and painful headache that usually occurs on one side of the head, often behind or above the eye. The pain may then travel to the eyes, face, and sinuses. The pain experienced from a migraine can range from a mild headache to a throbbing, debilitating pain; unfortunately, most migraine sufferers fall into this latter category.

In addition to the headache, common migraine symptoms include vomiting, dizziness, nausea, double vision, and tunnel vision. Some migraines can be preceded by an aura, or can just occur without warning. Common warning auras include a sudden sensitivity to light or sound, hallucinations, hot flashes, tingling in the limbs, or numbness on one side of the body.

Migraines are far worse than just a bad headache. The fear of having a debilitating migraine can have a severe impact on one’s life, which is why substantial research into migraine treatment is being conducted.

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Statistics on Migraines

Migraines affects 12% of people in the United States, and it is estimated that around 10% of people suffer from them worldwide. Furthermore, 85% of chronic migraine sufferers are women. The peak incidences of migraines occur between the ages of thirty and forty, but children and elders have also been known to suffer from them. Research has suggested that the source of migraines might be genetic. One study found that 70-80% of migraine sufferers have family who also experience migraines.

Research has suggested that migraines might be caused by dilated blood vessels in the brain due to chemical imbalances. This causes the blood vessels to press on neighboring nerves and brain tissue, which in response creates the headache of a migraine. Other than that, not much is known about the neurological or vascular causes of migraines.

2 Tips to Reduce Migraines

The causes of migraines will vary from person to person, and there is now a variety of treatment methods available today that aim to improve migraine sufferers’ quality of life, but avoiding migraines whenever possible can help reduce the frequency and severity of migraines.

Avoid Triggers

Different things trigger different people, so most migraine sufferers work with their doctors to track their migraines and determine what may be causing them. Even though triggering factors will vary, some of them have been widely accepted as affecting most migraine sufferers.

Food such as dairy products, alcoholic drinks, caffeinated and carbonated drinks, processed foods, MSG, and pickled foods have all been shown to trigger migraines in a substantial amount of people. Moreover, certain medications or the flickering of televisions or computer screens have been associated with higher migraine frequency. Migraines can be avoided by limiting or eliminating the intake of these trigger foods, or by reducing the amount of time spent in front of screens.

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Reduce Stress

Stress has been shown to be one of the leading causes of migraine. This is perhaps due to how several different conditions can lead to stress. Stressors such as anger, frustration, and depression are some of the most common migraine triggers, and even getting too much or too little sleep can lead to stress. It is for this reason that migraine sufferers should take as many measures as possible to reduce stress in their lives.

Activities that stimulate or calm the mind such as aerobic exercise, pilates, yoga and meditation have been shown to alleviate the symptoms of migraines. In addition, massages and getting the proper amount of sleep are effective ways of preventing stress-induced migraines.

Other Natural Treatment for Migraines

Prescription and over-the-counter medications are often used to treat migraines, but they often come with unpleasant or even dangerous side effects. Besides CBD (more on that later), there are a number of natural remedies that a migraine sufferer can explore to try and determine which is best for them. Here are some viable alternatives for migraine treatment.

Essential Oils

Essential oils have been used historically to treat a wide range of ailments, including anxiety, insomnia, and headaches. Two particularly useful oils for treating migraines are those made out of lavender and peppermint.

One study conducted a three-month lavender treatment plan for migraine sufferers, and the results showed that the frequency and severity of migraines was significantly reduced. Peppermint is also effective in treating headaches due to its active ingredient menthol. Applying a 10% menthol solution substantially reduced the migraine symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light in one study. The use of essential oils has been confirmed as a safe and effective method for alleviating migraine symptoms.

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Studies have indicated that small amounts of caffeine have been effective in reducing the frequency and intensity of migraines, but on the other hand, excessive caffeine intake has also been known to cause headaches that can trigger migraines. Those who are habitual caffeine drinkers are particularly at risk for caffeine withdrawal migraines.


Acupressure is an alternative therapy in which physical pressure is applied at various points on the body to alleviate symptoms such as pain. In addition to its pain-relieving benefits, acupressure has been shown to be effective in reducing the nausea associated with migraines. Even though research has confirmed acupressure as a viable treatment for migraine, research into acupuncture has yielded inconclusive results.


Ginger has been shown to have numerous health benefits, and is particularly useful for treating nausea without adverse side effects. Furthermore, in a 2011 study, ginger was 24% more effective in eliminating or relieving migraine headaches than a placebo.


Magnesium plays an important role in the body’s nervous, muscle, and immune systems. As a result, magnesium deficiency is associated with many neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and migraines. Taking magnesium supplements or eating magnesium-rich foods can potentially prevent or reduce the symptoms of migraines.

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Capsaicin is a chemical compound present in chili peppers, and it has been shown to have pain-reducing and desensitizing effects. In one study, all patients who inhaled capsaicin nasally once a day reported a 50-80% improvement in their migraines.

How Can CBD Help For Migraines?

Medical cannabis is used to treat symptoms of several diseases and disorders, but one of its most common uses is for alleviating chronic pain. Cannabis use has been demonstrated to quickly eliminate headaches, making it a promising treatment option for migraines.

In particular, hemp-derived CBD provides several pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects, and its anti-inflammatory qualities have been measured to be several hundred times more effective than aspirin. CBD has an effect that’s very similar to capsaicin, but it doesn’t cause an unpleasant burning sensation. In addition, hemp CBD doesn’t have the same psychotropic effects of THC, so its analgesic properties can be enjoyed without any intoxication. CBD’s pain-relieving qualities make it a viable natural treatment option for migraine sufferers.

It has been theorized that migraines could in part be caused by an endocannabinoid deficiency, which could explain why cannabis use has shown to be more helpful than traditional medications. However, more research needs to be done on this topic to yield conclusive evidence of this.

One research study found that migraine frequency and intensity decreased in patients who used medical cannabis. Furthermore, in this same study, cannabis was shown to be effective in both alleviating an active headache and preventing future episodes. The participants of this study reported that they preferred medical cannabis over prescription medications since it was more effective and caused fewer side effects.

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Despite the limited research conducted on CBD oil as a treatment for migraines and headaches, its role in the endocannabinoid system provides undeniable relief. Using CBD during a warning aura may help prevent the occurrence of a migraine, and regular use may drastically reduce them outright. For migraine sufferers today, hemp CBD can be an effective and much safer alternative to prescription medications.

Key Takeaways

  • A migraine is defined as a severe, debilitating headache that can be accompanied by vomiting, dizziness, nausea, double vision, and tunnel vision.
  • Migraines can also cause sensitivity to light or sound, hallucinations, hot flashes, tingling or numbness.
  • Stress, as well as certain foods, medications or flickering screens can be triggers for migraines and should be avoided or eliminated.
  • Alternative natural treatments for migraines can include essential oils, caffeine, acupressure, ginger, magnesium and capsaicin.
  • CBD has been used to treat symptoms of migraines or reduce the frequency of migraines due to its pain relieving and anti-inflammatory properties.


Tessera Naturals topical salve contains 500mgs of CBD as well as Lavender essential oil for a perfect natural remedy against migraines and headaches. Rub some on your temples, sit back, close your eyes and feel the relief.

Tessera Naturals CBD Tinctures contain CBD oil within an organic coconut oil carrier base. Our mint flavor tincture includes organic peppermint essential oil that has been shown to help relieve headaches and migraines.

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CBD Oil for Insomnia and Sleep

Cannabis is becoming increasingly valued for its therapeutic properties as new research continues to emerge. The cannabinoids within the cannabis plant all offer different medicinal effects, with THC and CBD being the most heavily studied. CBD in particular is known for producing a range of therapeutic benefits without the intoxication that comes with THC use.

CBD from hemp is commonly used to treat symptoms from many disorders such as multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and epilepsy. In addition, using CBD oil for insomnia is becoming more and more popular due to its relaxing and sedative effects, which makes it a promising alternative treatment for sleep disorders without resorting to prescription drugs.

How Much CBD Oil Should You Take for Insomnia?

Interestingly, CBD has shown to be a stimulant at low doses; while the sedative effects of CBD are mostly present at larger doses. As is common with most anxiety relievers, sedatives, and anticonvulsants, CBD generates its therapeutic effects by decreasing activation of the central nervous system, making the user less alert. 

Furthermore, higher doses of CBD have been shown to significantly reduce the pulse rate when combined with small amounts of THC. Not only does this relaxing quality make it easier to fall asleep, but it can also be instrumental in treating panic and anxiety disorders. In fact, evidence has suggested that CBD’s sedative effects are mostly due to a reduction in anxiety.

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CBD Oil For Insomnia and Sleep

Insomnia is a sleep disorder that is estimated to affect up to 10% of the adult population. Insomnia is defined as having difficulty falling and staying asleep for at least three nights per week, over a period of three or more months.

There are various medications designed to treat insomnia, but they often come with unpleasant side effects. For this reason, many clinicians recommend taking a non-pharmacological approach to treating insomnia before resorting to medication. If you are suffering from insomnia, then CBD hemp oil could be a great option to try.

One study has shown that CBD use triggers marked improvements in overall sleep quality. The patients reported minimal side effects from taking CBD oil for insomnia, and most of them enjoyed experimenting with a natural treatment solution rather than taking the medication route. Even though it’s only one example of CBD benefiting insomniacs, it strongly suggests that CBD could be a beneficial alternative to traditional sleep medications.

Underlying Issues Causing Insomnia

CBD could be quite useful for dealing with comorbidity (the simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditions). It is fairly common for depression and anxiety to accompany bouts of insomnia, and vice versa. Hemp-derived CBD could potentially be used to treat all of these conditions at once.

CBD has well-documented anxiety-reducing effects, and it also helps the brain regulate serotonin levels, which is important when dealing with depression. Given all of its therapeutic benefits, it would be very convenient to not have to worry about managing different medications to treat different disorders, and instead use hemp-derived CBD as a potential all-purpose treatment method. 

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More Research Needed for Using CBD Oil for Insomnia

Even though there is much evidence to suggest that taking CBD oil for insomnia and sleep issues can be very helpful, research on this topic is still relatively new. There are even studies that disprove CBD’s role in affecting sleep, so it’s clear that more research needs to be done before a conclusive answer is reached. 

It is also unclear whether or not CBD alone responsible for its sleep-promoting qualities. There are terpenes in hemp, such as myrcene, that are known to be sedative, and CBD’s sedative effects often intermingle with those of THC in a cannabis product. For now, it seems that CBD can have great potential as a sleeping aid, but it remains to be seen if it has this quality in isolation. 

All Tessera Naturals products are made with a broad spectrum hemp extract. Evidence suggests that consuming a full spectrum or broad spectrum CBD products is more effective overall than consuming a CBD isolate due to the “entourage effect“.

Key Takeaways

  • CBD can be used as a stimulant at low doses, and a sedative at high doses.
  • CBD has a number of sedative, anxiety-reducing, and anticonvulsant effects that can all potentially aid in falling asleep.
  • CBD has potential as a treatment method for comorbidity – that is, it could be used to treat two or more diseases/conditions that are suffered at the same time.
  • There has been limited research on CBD’s impact on sleep. More studies need to be conducted in order to find out if CBD can have an effect in isolation.
  • The entourage effect has been shown to aid in the effectiveness of taking CBD oil for insomnia.

4 Ways to Incorporate CBD Into Your Daily Routine

There’s no questions that the stigma around cannabis has been slowly dissipating over the last few years, and with the 2018 Farm Bill legalizing hemp on a federal level, CBD from hemp has been booming as a result. Many people wonder how to take CBD and incorporate it into their daily routine.

With the popularity of CBD on the rise, it’s easier than ever to consume your CBD hemp oil in various formats from tinctures to creams to edibles.  Below, we lay out 4 easy ways to add CBD to your daily wellness regimen.

What is CBD?

CBD (cannabidiol) is a chemical compound found in the hemp plant and has been shown to provide a plethora of health and medical benefits, without the psychoactive effects associated with marijuana. THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), on the other hand,  is the compound in cannabis that is responsible for making you “high”.  

What is CBD Used For?

Many people who suffer from debilitating conditions such as Fibromyalgia or MS take CBD to ease their symptoms and improve their quality of life.  While CBD has been a life changer for them, the majority of CBD consumers are simply looking for a little more balance in their mood, or combat annoying aches and pains or to help with occasional bouts of insomnia.

How Does CBD Work?

Each of us has an Endocannabinoid System (ECS) in our body.  Only recently discovered in the 1990’s, the ECS is responsible for regulating many functions throughout our bodies such as mood, appetite, pain sensitivity, sleep patterns and immune response.

The main function of the ECS is to promote balance between all of these systems and to promote equilibrium, or “homeostasis”.  The ECS does this by producing chemical compounds called cannabinoids, which act similar to neurotransmitters like serotonin or dopamine.  Cannabinoids from plants (such as CBD and THC) can interact with our ECS and assist in doing its job more effectively. 

4 Ways To Incorporate CBD Daily

1. Morning Coffee

The majority of Americans start their day with a cup of coffee first thing in the morning.  Whether you brew your own at home, or you like to visit the local artisan cafe, this time of day is one of the best opportunities to consume CBD and start your day off right.

While research is still emerging on the effects of mixing CBD and caffeine, there is plenty of anecdotal evidence that CBD from hemp can help with the alertness effects from caffeine, while also taking the edge off of the jitters it can cause.  It works great with tea as well!

Tessera Naturals tinctures provide flexible dosing and an easy way to drop some CBD oil into your coffee.  Keep in mind that adding CBD oil to your food or beverage is perfectly ok to do, but taking the oil sublingually is more optimal for absorption since it doesn’t travel through your digestive system.  Try both ways and see how it affects you!

Note:  It’s been said that, at low doses, CBD is a stimulant and in higher doses it can cause sedation.  Dosing is different for everyone, just as caffeine affects everyone differently, and some are more sensitive than others. It will take some trial and error for each person to find their own optimal mix of CBD and caffeine.

2. Work-Life Balance

Many people need some time to ease into their work day, maybe read through some industry articles or check emails for a while.  Others jump right in, whether that’s getting on calls, tackling their To Do list or attending meetings. However you structure your time, there’s no question that Americans are busier than ever and work-life balance has become more scarce in recent years, especially with the rise of technology, which ironically is supposed to make our lives easier!

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The stresses of our fast-paced multi-tasking modern day work life has led to more anxiety and lower quality of life than ever before, which in turn can cause many physical health problems.

CBD hemp oil capsules are a super convenient way to take your CBD on the go.  Whether in the office, or on business travel, popping a capsule is as easy as taking your daily vitamins.

Tessera Naturals softgel capsules are specially formulated with a proprietary nano-emulsified water-soluble hemp extracted CBD oil. Unlike other oil based ingestible or edible CBD products, nano sized droplets means faster absorption and higher bioavailability compared to standard CBD ingested in oil form.

3. Workout Recovery

Besides maintaining a clean diet of mostly unprocessed foods, regular exercise is one of the easiest and most effective lifestyle changes you can make to promote better health and wellness.  Many studies have shown that regular exercise – whether it’s cardio, weight lifting or some kind of sporting activity – can promote better physical as well as mental well being.

After a long day at the office, hitting the gym or sports complex is a great way to de-stress from our hectic work schedules.  While regular exercise is fantastic, our bodies also need time to recover. Besides recovery, if you’ve been at this game for a while, you’ve probably experienced times where our athletic endeavors can take a toll on our bodies and cause some aches and pains that need healing.  

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By reducing pain and inflammation, we’re actually helping our bodies recover faster, so we can be ready for our next workout. Whether it’s joint pain, inflammation, stiffness or muscle soreness, a topical CBD cream or salve can provide soothing relief, both before and after our workout.

Tessera Naturals CBD Pain Cream contains 500mgs of broad spectrum hemp CBD per 2 oz jar as well as eucalyptus for that soothing cooling effect.  We’ve also added peppermint and rosemary essential oils for additional antioxidants and anti-inflammatory relief.

4. Bedtime Routine

According to various polls, the majority of adults complain of sleep disruption at least once a week.  Insomnia can lead to many chronic health conditions such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes, strokes and even cancer.  Whether you have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep, or just not getting a full restful night due to lack of REM sleep, CBD can be very helpful.

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Some studies suggest that CBD’s ability to treat insomnia is a byproduct of its ability to curb anxiety. Other studies suggest that CBD may have direct therapeutic potential to treat insomnia by promoting REM sleep behavior.  

As we mentioned before, evidence suggests that low doses of CBD can be a stimulant, and higher doses can promote sedation and relaxation, so keep that in mind as you’re experimenting with dosage.

5. Bonus Tip! CBD Oil For Your Dog

If you’re one of the 68% of Americans who have at least one pet, this is one more opportunity to incorporate CBD into your daily routine.  Our dogs (and all animals for that matter) have an endocannabinoid system just as humans do and hemp CBD oil for dogs can help treat many conditions in our pets such as anxiety disorders, pain from arthritis or joint problems or seizures.

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Our Tessera Naturals Dog Treats are are a great way to give your furry family members the benefits of broad spectrum CBD.  Our dog treats were formulated by a veterinarian and each soft chew has a tasty beef flavor and is easy to digest.  Some people even tell us their cats love them too!

Where to Buy CBD Oil?

Whether you use CBD oil for one of the above cases, or you do them all, make sure you are always purchasing a high quality product.  Unfortunately, due to the absence of FDA regulations on CBD, there are a lot of low quality and possibly unsafe products on the market.

What Sets Tessera Naturals apart?

All Tessera Naturals products adhere to the following standards: 

  • Organically grown phytocannabinoid-rich hemp from fully compliant US Farm
  • Manufactured in GMP compliant and FDA registered facility
  • Solvent free extraction methodology to maintain the whole plant profile
  • Nano-emulsion technology to ensure optimal absorption and bioavailability
  • Non-GMO and free of pesticides, metals or harsh chemicals
  • 3rd party independent lab testing for potency, quality and safety

And remember, we offer military and senior discounts… and every product you buy from Tessera Naturals helps protect our planet through our partnership with onepercentfortheplanet.org!

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What Are Other Cannabinoids beyond CBD and THC?

Despite the fact that there are estimated to be over 120 total cannabinoids present in the cannabis plant, relatively little is known about the minor cannabinoids compared to THC and CBD.

While studies have shown that these two cannabinoids are largely responsible for the psychoactive and therapeutic effects of cannabis, the other cannabinoids have their own unique effects on the mind and body, and many work synergistically with the two major cannabinoids to enhance their impact. 

Many of the identified cannabinoids are very similar in structure to one another, but even slight structural differences have been known to produce a wide range of physiological effects. It is no surprise then, with all the potential benefits of the lesser-known cannabinoids, that researchers have deemed them worth examining. 

Do All Cannabinoids Work the Same Way?

The two major cannabinoids, THC and CBD, produce the majority of their effects by interacting with cannabinoid receptors in our endocannabinoid system, which has been shown to regulate functions such as cognition, pain sensation, appetite, memory, sleep, immune function, and mood.

However, some cannabinoids are able to produce physiological effects outside of the endocannabinoid system. For example, a common behavior of certain cannabinoids is to activate transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels), which influence sensations such as pain, temperature, taste, and vision. Based on this evidence, it is clear that research on cannabinoids cannot be restricted to how they interact with CB1 and CB2 receptors alone.

With all of this information in mind, let’s take a look at some of the lesser-known cannabinoids that are present in the cannabis plant, as well as the benefits they provide.

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Cannabigerol (CBG)

What is CBG?  CBG is a non-psychotropic cannabinoid that is the second most abundant in the cannabis plant, and is commonly used to stimulate appetite and treat pain and anxiety. It is interesting to note that the carboxylic acid form of CBG, cannabigerolic acid, is the precursor to all other cannabinoids, including THC, CBD, and CBC.

In the beginning of the cannabis plant’s growth, CBG makes up about 16.3% of total cannabinoid content, but this percentage drops to about 1% as the plant matures. In a manner similar to CBC, CBG does not bind to CB1 receptors, but it has an effect on the endocannabinoid system by increasing levels of anandamide in the brain. Out of all the cannabinoids, CBG has been shown to have the most potent antibacterial and antibiotic properties. Since CBG is an antagonist of CB1 receptors, it could also possibly lessen the effects of THC. 

Interesting Fact: CBG has also been used as an effective insect repellent when combined with the terpene limonene.

Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)

THCV is a cannabinoid with a structure almost identical to that of THC, but it reacts differently at a molecular level, and thus has unique physiological effects. Like THC, THCV binds to CB1 and CB2 receptors, but at lower doses, THCV can been shown to counteract some of the effects of THC, while enhancing them at higher doses.

In addition, THCV has displayed anticonvulsant, anti-anxiety, and pain-relieving properties, which make it a good potential treatment method for conditions such as epilepsy and PTSD. THCV has even shown to have antipsychotic properties, which could make it a promising solution for alleviating some of the symptoms of schizophrenia. 

Cannabidivarin (CBDV)

Cannabidivarin is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that has a variety of therapeutic benefits. It was first isolated in 1969, but little research has been performed on it since then. CBDV has been shown to have anticonvulsant and anti-epileptic effects, but instead of occurring through binding of cannabinoid receptors, they are caused by activating TRP channels.

As a result, CBDV is used to treat epilepsy without causing intoxication, and has much fewer side effects compared to common anti-epileptic drugs. CBDV is also currently undergoing clinical trials for use in glioma, type 2 diabetes, schizophrenia, and encephalopathy, so its future therapeutic applications seem rather promising.

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Cannabinol (CBN)

Cannabinol is a metabolite of THC that exhibits many immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities. Compared to THC, CBN is only mildly psychoactive; CBN binds selectively to CB2 receptors in the peripheral nervous system, but has minimal activity on CB1 receptors. One of the most interesting benefits of CBN is its potential as an appetite stimulant.

A study suggested that CBN can potentially increase one’s appetite, so it has promising applications for the treatment of eating disorders. Other than that, CBN has been shown to be a powerful sedative, and can also be used to relieve nausea. 

Cannabichromene (CBC)

CBC doesn’t actively bind to either CB1 or CB2 receptors, but it affects the endocannabinoid system indirectly by inhibiting the absorption of anandamide, a neurotransmitter that binds to cannabinoid receptors. CBC has shown to be more prevalent in the more psychoactive strains of cannabis, whereas higher CBD concentrations are more common in fiber-like strains used in hemp.

CBC and THC have been shown to have a strong synergistic relationship, as CBC increases levels of THC in the brain, and THC, in turn, enhances the pharmacological effects of CBC. When used together with THC, CBC displays anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and pain-relieving qualities. Cannabichromene is due to receive a lot more research in the near future, largely because of its relationship with THC.

Cannabichromevarin (CBCV)

CBCV is among the least-studied cannabinoids that have been identified. It was discovered in 1975, which was a little later than the more well-known cannabinoids, and not much research has been done on it since then. CBCV is very similar in structure to CBC, so many researchers estimate that it will share some of the same benefits.

Like CBC, CBCV is not psychoactive, so it can be used to provide relief for chronic pain, depression, inflammation, and insomnia without causing any intoxicating effects. CBCV has also been shown to suppress the appetite instead of stimulating it, so it could be useful for those who are trying to control their eating habits.

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What about Terpenes?

No article about cannabinoids would be complete without discussing their relationship with terpenes.  While we’ve already gone more in depth about terpenes here, it’s worth mentioning that terpenes and cannabinoids go hand in hand when consuming cannabis and cannabis derivatives such as hemp CBD products.  

When consumed together, the benefits of cannabinoids, terpenes and other natural compounds found in cannabis work synergistically to enhance the properties of one another.  This is referred to as the “entourage effect”, which means that the effects are greater than the sum of the individual parts.

Tessera Naturals products are all made with broad spectrum CBD.  This means that we start with a full spectrum whole plant extract, then remove the trace amounts of THC while leaving all of the minor cannabinoids and terpenes in tact.  Studies show that full spectrum CBD and broad spectrum CBD are much more effective than CBD isolate, which is only comprised of the CBD cannabinoid alone.

Key Takeaways

  • There are many other cannabinoids in the cannabis plant besides THC and CBD that offer their own range of therapeutic benefits.
  • Cannabinoids primarily activate receptors in the endocannabinoid system, but physiological effects can also occur through TRP channels.
  • Limited research has been done on cannabinoids other than THC and CBD, but that is certainly going to change as the medical benefits of cannabis become more apparent.
  • Many cannabinoids and terpenes act in synergy with one another to enhance their effects exponentially, which is referred to as the “entourage effect”.
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What Are Terpenes

What Are Terpenes?

Terpenes consist of over 50,000 naturally occurring aromatic chemical compounds that are present in all living species, but here we are going to focus on are those that are prevalent in fruits and flowering plants.

There are believed to be a few hundred terpene variations that are common to all plants, but the majority of terpenes are restricted to a specific plant species. Terpenes are largely responsible for giving plants and flowers their signature aromas and flavors, as well as having many therapeutic benefits.

Chemically, all terpenes are comprised of hydrocarbon units–known as isoprene units–which form chain-like sequences of five carbon molecules. The most common plant-specific terpenes are monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and triterpenes, which consist of two, three, four, and six isoprene units respectively.

The size and structure of a terpene determines how water-soluble it is, as well as its volatility; the smaller a terpene, the more unstable it is. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are relatively unstable, and evaporate at room temperature, which is the reason why their scents are easily noticeable.

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What Are The Benefits of Terpenes?

Terpenes have a number of distinctive scents, flavors, and health benefits, all of which are a result of their natural ecological functions. To protect themselves against disease and being fed upon by herbivores, many plants develop terpenes that are toxic to fungi, bacteria, and insects. Furthermore, terpenes serve to attract pollinators to flowers.

The smaller, more volatile terpenes are light enough to travel lengthy distances through the air, and they appeal to the olfactory receptors of many animals. Terpenes will even attract predators and alert nearby plants when a pesky herbivore breaks the skin of a leaf. So, all things considered, terpenes exert a vast influence on nature.

How Are Terpenes Used By Humans?

Throughout history, terpenes have been used for a wide variety of purposes, the most noteworthy being the role terpenes play in our consumption of food. The terpenes in herbs and spices are largely responsible for our perception of flavor.

Their pleasant scents also make them perfect for use in cosmetic products such as perfumes, oils, and lotions, and their natural toxicity allows them to be used for mouthwash, insect repellent, and disinfectants. In addition, terpenes have been used in medications designed to fight cancer and kill malarial parasites

Even though the effects of terpenes are well-documented, there is still a lot of mystery surrounding the roles of specific terpenes in plant biology. Research is continuously learning more about terpenes and uncovering more potential applications for their use. As a more extreme example, researchers are currently trying to figure out how they can use terpenes as a fuel source!

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Terpenes in Cannabis

Cannabis naturally has its own set of terpenes. In total, over 120 terpene variations are present in the cannabis plant. The different concentrations of terpenes will affect the aroma of a particular cannabis strain, but the role of terpenes doesn’t end with dictating scent. Terpenes can work synergistically with cannabinoids such as THC and CBD to target and enhance certain therapeutic effects.

Combining terpenes with cannabinoids has resulted in a promising range of potential applications for therapeutic use, from treating acne, to fighting cancer. Let’s examine the benefits and characteristics of the most common terpenes found in cannabis.


b-Caryophyllene is typically the most abundant terpene present in a cannabis product. It is also prominent in plants and spices such as cinnamon, black pepper, and rosemary, so it has a spicy, pepper-like scent.

Since it selectively binds to CB2 receptors in the body, it is most potent as a pain reliever and anti-inflammatory agent, but it has a variety of additional uses. For example, studies have shown that b-Caryophyllene is effective in treating drug and alcohol addiction when used synergistically with CBD. When combined with THC, it can provide relief for depression and anxiety disorders. b-Caryophyllene has even been shown to relieve the itchiness caused by contact dermatitis.


Pinene is the most commonly encountered terpene in nature, and has a vast amount of medicinal applications. As suggested by its name, pinene has an aroma reminiscent of pine needles, conifers, and sage. It is known to be anti-inflammatory, can serve as an insect repellent, and can even be used to relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis. In addition, pinene has been shown to be effective in treating antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

Another interesting benefit is that low doses of pinene can make breathing easier, so it can be soothing for people with conditions such as asthma. Pinene has also been shown to help counteract the short-term memory loss experienced with THC intoxication.


Linalool is a terpene that’s well-known for having powerful sedative properties, which were first observed during the use of lavender in traditional aromatherapy. The soothing effects of linalool can be useful in treating stress, anxiety, and depression. In particular, linalool has been used in conjunction with CBD to treat psychosis and social anxiety disorder. Furthermore, when paired with THC, it can be used as a local anaesthetic that’s comparable to procaine or menthol. Linalool naturally occurs in plants and spices such as lavender, coriander, and birch trees.

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Limonene is the second most commonly occurring terpene in nature, and is present in the rinds of all citrus fruits. Studies have demonstrated that limonene increases dopamine and serotonin levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, making it a powerful antidepressant, anxiety reliever, and mood elevator.

Limonene has also been shown to be effective in treating a number of cancers, including breast cancer, skin cancer, prostate cancer, and other tumorous growths. Furthermore, limonene has proved to be very anti-bacterial and anti-fungal, so it is commonly paired with CBD to use in acne treatments.


Myrcene is common in highly aromatic plants such as sweet basil, bay leaves, lemongrass, hops, wild thyme, as well as tropical fruits. It can be used to alleviate chronic pain, anxiety, and inflammation. Furthermore, myrcene is often utilized for its soothing properties. It is commonly used to prevent muscle spasms in multiple sclerosis patients, and can also be a potent sleeping aid. Myrcene has even been used to treat sleep disorders by adding it to CBD/THC extracts. Studies have shown that myrcene could also intensify the effects of THC.

Terpenes and the “Entourage Effect”

Terpenes play a key part in the synergistic relationship between the naturally occurring compounds found in cannabis.  CBD and THC as well as 100+ other cannabinoids have their many benefits, but when combined with terpenes, they amplify one another and provide overall therapeutic benefits that are greater than their individual parts.  Consuming full spectrum or broad spectrum hemp extract will lead to a much greater therapeutic effect, over consuming an isolated CBD product, or an isolated terpene product alone.

All Tessera Naturals products are made with broad spectrum Hemp extract. This means that besides CBD, our products contain the full spectrum of beneficial cannabinoids, terpenes and amino acids in hemp (except THC). 

Key Takeaways

  • Terpenes have a significant role in governing nature, and are also a major factor of human life.
  • Terpenes are present in all plants life, and their properties help the plant adapt to its ecological niche.
  • Terpenes are responsible for a plant’s aroma, flavor, and they have various therapeutic effects.
  • The most common terpenes in cannabis include; b-Caryophyllene, Pinene, Linalool, Limonene and Myrcene.
  • Not only are terpenes responsible for the scent of cannabis, but they can also be used synergistically with other terpenes and cannabinoids to produce a desired “entourage effect”.

What is the Entourage Effect?

CBD and The Entourage Effect

CBD is slowly becoming a household name in the natural treatment world for its management of various ailments ranging from chronic pain to anxiety. Little wonder it is fast becoming legalized in numerous countries making it available everywhere from spas, beauty parlors and coffee shops. Its growing availability in various forms like tinctures, capsules and lotions makes it easy to consume and use as well.

A lot of people have used and testified to the efficacy of hemp CBD products but you may be among the numerous fans of CBD who are still confused about the most effective forms, how much to take and how best to use it

First, A Brief Overview of CBD 

Cannabinoids are chemical compounds occurring naturally in our body’s endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoids also are found in certain plants, and are capable of interacting with the cannabinoid receptors within the body.

CBD (or Cannabidiol) is one of the numerous (100+) cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant along with other beneficial compounds like terpenes and amino acids.  THC is another well known cannabinoid found in cannabis.

What Is The Difference Between CBD and THC?

The basic difference between CBD and THC is the ability of THC to make you high because it contains psychoactive elements while CBD doesn’t. 

There are two types of Cannabinoid receptors in our bodies, which are part of our endocannabinoid system. THC usually interacts with the CB1 receptors in our bodies that can elicit that feeling of ‘euphoria’, as well as effect pain tolerance. On the other hand, CBD interacts mostly with the CB2 receptors that illicit immune responses, reduce pain and inflammation and control sleep patterns and appetite.

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How CBD Works With Our Endocannabinoid System (ECS)

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an important network of receptors that allows us to connect with our immune system, nervous system and organs. According to research, the ECS responds to the body’s endocannabinoids produced within the body, as well as phytocannabinoids from plants like cannabis.

When CBD is introduced into the body, it can then help diminish certain symptoms. It does this by indirectly interacting on the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the different parts of the body. When CBD stimulates our ECS, it promotes homeostasis (balance) and reduces pain sensation and inflammation, regulates mood disorders and helps a host of many other symptoms.

So What Is The Entourage Effect

Research has shown that when medical substances from plants are taken in their whole and natural state, they tend to be more potent. The entourage effect is in action when the numerous components of the cannabis plant act in synergy on the body to maximize their healing effects. This is as opposed to the milder effect of using them solo, or isolated.

It is like bringing different individuals together to form a team for a project. Each team member will bring his/her expertise to make the project a success. With the cannabis plant compounds, there is a multiplier effect. The combination of the various natural compounds produces a more effective and stronger solution when they work together. We are not confined to the sum of each part but more so the amplification of the different components.

In essence, the most effective cannabis therapies use a combination of compounds, mostly full-spectrum and broad-spectrum CBD, for an enhanced medicinal experience. This is often preferable over using a CBD isolate. For example, CBD restrains the influence of THC on the body while terpenes in cannabis will add to the effects and as well as determining the taste and smell of the cannabis strain.

Poor quality control and inconsistency of botanical extracts however pose challenges to the entourage effect.

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Full Spectrum CBD vs. Broad Spectrum CBD vs. CBD Isolate 

As mentioned above, you may have come across these “spectrum” terms on CBD product packaging, but many consumers may not understand the differences.

Simply put, CBD isolate is a single molecule product containing only CBD. It is the purest form of the compound extracted from the plant and does not contain any other natural compounds of the plant. Its advantage lies in the availability of high concentration of the CBD per serving. It allows users experience full benefits of CBD but lacks the entourage effect.

Full-spectrum CBD is an extract that contains all the active naturally-occurring phytochemicals from hemp like CBD, THC (negligible amount), terpenes, amino acids and so on. They synergistically work together to produce the entourage effect. Even though full-spectrum CBD is considered non-psychoactive, a consistent user may feel slight sedation effects and may also test positive in a drug test.

Broad spectrum CBD, on the other hand, is made up of all the components similar to full spectrum CBD, but minus THC. Broad spectrum CBD also produce the entourage effect but without the chance of any THC entering the system.

While each CBD spectrum has its pros and cons, we feel that broad-spectrum CBD is the best of both worlds, sort of between a full-spectrum CBD and CBD isolate. All Tessera Naturals products are made using the highest quality broad spectrum CBD from organically grown USA hemp. We conduct 3rd party lab testing in order to ensure potency of CBD and other cannabinoids and terpenes, as well as confirming our hemp oil is THC free.

Key Takeaways

  • CBD and THC are just two of the 100+ cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant, along with other beneficial compounds like minor cannabinoids, terpenes and amino acids.
  • CBD and other cannabinoids found in cannabis can interact with our endocannabinoid system to promote homeostasis and healing efforts.
  • The many compounds in cannabis (cannabinoids, terpenes, amino acids) work synergistically and amplify the benefits of one another when consumed together.
  • Full spectrum and broad spectrum CBD produce the entourage effect, while CBD isolate does not.
  • Broad spectrum CBD is a good choice for those interested in the entourage effect, but do not wish to consume any THC.

CBD Extraction Methods Explained

How is CBD Extracted From Hemp?

While it may not seem important, the different methods of how CBD oil is extracted from hemp can produce highly different end products and have different impacts on your health. It’s important to ask about and understand how different companies extract their CBD oil from hemp.

The growing awareness of the benefits of CBD oil has helped it become extremely popular in the past few years. CBD is produced and manufactured into edibles, oils, and topical creams — all of which offer their specific ways of aiding people.

What is CBD Extract?

CBD, also known as cannabidiol, has become the most highly debated and sought-after component from the cannabis plant in recent years. It has become known worldwide for its many beneficial qualities which range from helping people deal with mental illness to helping cancer patients deal with nausea (a common side effect from chemotherapy treatment). It has been trusted by many for centuries and is currently in an uphill battle with some political parties who assume that CBD oil is just like its cousin THC. Luckily, research is proving them wrong. 

Besides understanding the different methods of extracting CBD from hemp, you’ll want to take into consideration the differences between full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, and CBD isolates.  More on that later.

As ties between the FDA and CBD companies continue to develop, you will also want to take into consideration which CBD extracts fall in and out of legal lines.  For example, CBD can be extracted from either hemp or marijuana, but only hemp-derived CBD is legal under the 2018 farm bill.  Marijuana and its derivatives remain federally illegal.

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Why Do We Need To Extract CBD?

The reason why you want to extract CBD is to separate the cannabinoid and make a concentrated form that is consumable for humans.  

Chewing on raw cannabis is not only unpleasant, but it will not have the same desired effect as a concentrated extract.  In order for the cannabinoids in cannabis to be effective, they must be decarboxylated (applying heat).

Drying cannabis will cause partial decarboxylation, and smoking/vaping it will instantaneously decarboxylate the cannabinoids, making them absorbable through inhalation.

Ingesting cannabinoids on the other hand, through oils, capsules and edibles, require decarboxylation in order for our bodies to take advantage of them through digestion.

Also, cannabis in its raw herbal form can host a wide variety of microbes which can present a health risk if not properly extracted and purified. The extraction process eliminates these and also removes undesirable compounds such as plant waxes and lipids, which might be harmful for our health.

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Start with Organic USA Hemp

The entire process starts with finding a rich CBD plant source to extract from. Tessera Naturals understands that, which is why we use organically grown hemp from the USA for our process.  

It is important to be mindful of where your chosen company extracts their CBD oil from as some hemp sources can be contaminated with toxic chemicals such as pesticides, or contain a bevy of undesirable chemicals or heavy metals.

Proper extractions also make sure that nearly all of the desirable components in the plant are maintained.  

Three Common Methods to Extract CBD

Extraction methods vary by their end result health profiles and their impact on the environment.  Most companies use the following three methods of extracting CBD.

1. Solvent

Solvent extraction involves the use of ethanol, butane, propane, isopropyl, or alcohol to extract the CBD. It is one of the least expensive options and is also fast and easy to do. It is also one of the most dangerous due to the highly flammable contents of the liquids. 

This method dissolves the plant waxes which themselves hold quite a few nutrients. It extracts not only the cannabinoids but also the chlorophyll — which gives some products a bitter taste. 

To begin the liquid solvent process, flowers and plant trimmings are put into a container. Then the solvent is soaked or run through the material, stripping it of the cannabinoids. Then the evaporation process leaves the concentrated cannabinoids in an oil form.

Besides being an extremely dangerous process, the downside is that the solvent residue can be toxic if they are not completely eliminated during the evaporation step. Some studies have found traces of naphtha hydrocarbons or petroleum residue in CBD products that have been extracted using solvents.

2. Olive Oil

The olive oil extraction process is the oldest method of extracting CBD. Many CBD lovers attest to it being the best. It is the safest method, doesn’t cost a lot, and it’s simple to do.

The process begins with the raw plant materials being decarboxylated (heated) to the desired temperature for a specific amount of time so that the chemicals in the plant are activated. Olive oil and the plant material are combined and heated again. This is when the cannabinoids are extracted. The olive oil isn’t evaporated, so the resulting extract isn’t as concentrated as the other methods. The dosage the consumer takes will have to compensate for this as well.

The issue with olive oil extraction arises with its highly perishable nature. It must be kept in a cool, dark area and therefore doesn’t work well for the needs of many CBD producers and consumers.

3. CO2 Extraction

As CBD companies have begun to flourish internationally, the CO2 method of extracting CBD has become the most advanced and advised way of completing the process. It is quite an investment as it is the most expensive and complex of the methods, but if done successfully, it makes a potent, safe and chlorophyll-free extraction. (Yummy!) 

The only downfall to this CO2 extraction process is that it’s a big investment for CBD producers and demands that they dig deep into their pockets.  Many premium CBD producers (including Tessera Naturals) are willing to use this method because it brings a much safer and higher quality product to their consumers. It also does not remove the beneficial contents of the plan as much as other methods do.  Lastly, the final product has a much lower chance of having contaminants. 

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Typically, the CO2 extraction process is done by using a “closed-loop extractor.” The machine contains three chambers. The first one holds pressurized, solid CO2 or dry ice; the second chamber has dried help plant material in it; the final chamber separates the resulting product.

From the first chamber, CO2 is pumped into the second chamber, which takes on the form of supercritical CO2 — between a gas and liquid state. The supercritical CO2 then runs through the materials and extracts the cannabinoids. It’s then pumped into the final chamber where the CO2 rises to the top. This leaves the extract at the bottom and isolated from the CO2. 

Which CBD Extraction Method is Best? 

While there are pros and cons to each extraction method, we feel that CO2 extraction is by far the most beneficial.  It consistently produces the highest quality concentration of CBD and is one of the safest extraction methods, leaving behind no toxic residue.

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What Happens After Extraction?

After the raw oil is extracted, the extract is further refined through a process called “winterization”. This step removes any solvents, chlorophyll, waxes or unwanted fats (lipids), resulting in a clean hemp oil with 70-90% CBD, minor cannabinoids, and terpenes.

NOTE: There is a recent increase in another type of refinement process referred to as CBD Distillate.  The distillation process involves applying high heat (boiling point) to the raw extracted oil to further separate the compounds and refine the extract through a distillation chamber. While resulting in a very pure and potent form of CBD, the main drawback of CBD distillate is that it does not contains many terpenes (if any) that work in synergy with other cannabinoids, thus missing out on the entourage effect. Due to this shortcoming, we feel that CO2 extraction and liquid chromatography is superior.

End product

As mentioned earlier, there are various types of CBD oils that can be produced with the hemp extract.

Full-spectrum CBD contains all of the cannabinoids and other natural compounds found in cannabis such as terpenes and amino acids (including trace amounts of THC).

Broad-spectrum CBD is similar to full spectrum, but removes the trace amounts of THC. 

To create broad spectrum CBD, the full spectrum CBD extract goes through an additional specialized process called liquid chromatography, which selectively binds to the THC and removes it at low temperatures, while the remaining synergistic cannabinoids, terpenes and amino acids remain intact.

CBD isolate contains a pure concentration of CBD only (99%), so it’s ideal for those who need high doses of CBD, but it does not contain any other cannabinoids and terpenes, thus lacking the “entourage effect”. 

To create CBD isolate, the extract is cooled and purified into a crystalline isolate form, which takes the form of a white, flavorless powder.

All Tessera Naturals products are broad spectrum CBD oil.  We feel this allows the benefits of consuming full spectrum CBD, but without the chance of ingesting any THC.

Key Takeaways

  • CBD must be extracted from raw cannabis in order to be most effective when ingested.
  • Solvent extraction can be efficient and inexpensive, but can potentially contain toxic residue.
  • Olive oil extraction is safe and inexpensive, but will have low yields and will result in a highly perishable product.
  • CO2 extraction, while most expensive and complex, will create the highest quality, safest CBD end product for the consumer.
  • After extraction, the CBD oil must be refined and purified to create either a full spectrum CBD, broad spectrum CBD, or a CBD isolate.
  • Broad spectrum will be the most appealing to the greater amount of people due to the benefits of full spectrum CBD and the “entourage effect”, but without the chances of consuming any THC.
  • In the end, the importance shouldn’t be placed on method, but more of whether it was done correctly.
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Are there Side Effects of CBD Oil? Is it Safe?

While more and more people are using CBD, there is limited research into the possible short and long term side effects of CBD oil, although preliminary evidence is pointing to very little, if any, adverse reactions experienced by the general public.

The popularity of cannabis, particularly hemp CBD, has soared over the last 3 years and continues to grow with forecasts predicting that the CBD market could reach $22 Billion by 2024!  

Twenty-six percent of Americans have tried CBD at least once in the past two years. For patients with conditions that seem to respond to CBD treatment, the numbers are much higher.  A recent survey shows that 57% of arthritis patients have tried marijuana and CBD for medicinal reasons.

If you’re considering trying CBD for the first time, read our Beginner’s Guide to CBD.

Current Status of Cannabis

People have been using the cannabis plant as medicine for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, such as:

  • Anxiety and mood disorders
  • Pain (the most common use for medical marijuana)
  • Nausea or vomiting from chemotherapy
  • Epileptic seizures
  • Muscle stiffness or spasms from multiple sclerosis
  • Many other uses

Research is starting to turn the tide on the decades old notions that marijuana is the devil’s lettuce, and more and more states are beginning to legalize it for medical and/or recreational purposes.

While people are starting to open up to the idea, there is still a stigma associated with cannabis, especially when it comes to recreational marijuana.  This is mainly due to THC. THC is the chemical compound in cannabis that is responsible for making you high.

CBD, on the other hand, seems to offer the best of both worlds when derived from hemp.  CBD contains medicinal properties and has been shown to alleviate symptoms of many ailments, without the psychoactive effects of THC.

Even though cannabis derivatives are emerging as safer options over conventional prescription medications, we still have a lot to learn.

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What is CBD?

To understand the side effects of CBD, we first need to understand what is CBD. As mentioned, CBD (short for cannabidiol) is a chemical compound found in the cannabis plant.  Unlike it’s cousin THC, you won’t get high from CBD.

There are several varieties of cannabis that intensify specific characteristics of the plant. One variety of cannabis that is responsible for the CBD market surge is hemp.  Hemp contains a high amount of CBD, and only trace amounts of THC… which makes it the preferred plant for extracting CBD.

Is CBD Oil Legal?

While the 2018 US Farm Bill legalized hemp derived CBD, the details and execution are still in flux.  What the farm bill did was removed hemp derived CBD and all hemp derivatives from the DEA’s list of Schedule I drugs.  It also allows farmers to grow hemp legally.

The confusion is that marijuana and THC remain illegal, and it’s difficult for law enforcement agencies to distinguish between CBD derived from hemp and CBD derived from marijuana.

The legality of CBD mainly depends on whether the CBD comes from hemp or marijuana.

Another issue is that the FDA has some apprehensions about CBD. The fact that the FDA has approved a CBD-based prescription drug, Epidiolex, it expects that any product that markets CBD for health purposes should go through the same FDA official drug approval process.

In addition, if CBD is added into food, it is considered a “food additive” according to the FDA, and they have not approved CBD for that purpose yet.  This has led some jurisdictions to outlaw any CBD added to food.  

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How Does CBD Oil Work?

CBD takes effect by working on the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS).  Our ECS plays a huge role in regulating various major functions in our bodies such as mood, pain sensitivity and sleep patterns.

Our endocannabinoid systems produces cannabinoids of our own that bind with receptors all throughout our bodies.  Cannabinoids from plants (such as CBD and THC) interact with these receptors as well, and can help people who don’t produce enough cannabinoids themselves.  

Is CBD Oil Addictive?

There is no known risk of addiction to CBD. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that CBD is well tolerated by most people and is considered safe and that “CBD oil exhibits no side effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential.”  

The report also states that “To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.”

So in other words, there is no evidence that CBD hemp oil is either physically or psychologically habit forming.

That being said, some people can develop a tolerance to cannabinoids in general. Some may even experience side effects of withdrawal if they stop taking CBD oil regularly, such as irritability, restlessness or nausea.

What Are the Side Effects of CBD Oil?

Various studies on the safety and side effects of CBD oil have suggested that CBD is generally safe and non-toxic in humans and animals and that high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are well tolerated by humans.

While the WHO has also stated that CBD is generally well tolerated by most people and is considered safe, there are some people who may be particularly sensitive to cannabinoids and might experience some minor side effects.

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Some of the noted side effects for higher doses of CBD oil include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Changes in appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Dry mouth
  • Nausea and vomiting

There is a documented list of side effects associated with the specific CBD-based drug Epidiolex.  These side effects include:

  • Sleepiness
  • Sedation and lethargy
  • Elevated liver enzymes
  • Rash
  • Malaise and weakness
  • Insomnia, sleep disorders
  • Infections

What about liver damage?  One recent study by the University of Arkansas looked at the effects that CBD had on the livers of mice and showed evidence of liver damage in 75% of the mice.  

Interestingly, many other herbal supplements can cause adverse side effects including liver damage. These products, like CBD, are not regulated by the FDA and caution should be taken when consuming higher doses. 

A big caveat to this study is that the mice were given doses that were the human equivalent to the maximum dose of the drug, Epidiolex. According to website for Epidiolex, a dose of 20 mg per kg of body weight is recommended per day for the greatest reduction in seizures.

To put that in perspective, that would be over 1300 mg of CBD per day for an adult weighing 150 pounds!  This is much higher than the typical daily dose of casual CBD oil users. Most people stick to somewhere in the range of 10-80 mgs per day, with slightly higher doses for insomnia, therapeutic effects and “flare ups”.

Some of the more serious side effects listed for Epidiolex include “thoughts about suicide, attempts to commit suicide, feelings of agitation, new or worsening depression, aggression and panic attacks.”

While these side effects sound pretty scary, as we’ve demonstrated above, the hemp-derived CBD products you can find on the market today such as tinctures, capsules and gummies contain much lower doses of CBD than Epidiolex. Therefore, it is not likely that over the counter CBD products will present much, if any, harm to the general consumer.  

Can CBD Oil Interact With Other Medications?

The biggest side effect of taking CBD hemp oil is that it can interact with other medications you may be currently taking.

Our liver has a family of enzymes called Cytochrome P450, which breaks down drugs into smaller bits that allow our cells to absorb them better and eliminate them properly.  

Although the effects have been shown to be minimal, if you take high enough amounts of CBD, it can inhibit the CYP450 enzyme’s ability to metabolize certain pharmaceutical drugs.

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Interestingly, CBD is not alone in CYP450 inhibition. Eating a portion of grapefruit or grapefruit juice have a similar effect.  Furthermore, Watercress, St. John’s Wort, and Goldenseal have all been shown to impact the CYP450 liver enzymes and inhibit drug metabolism.

If you are currently taking any pharmaceutical drugs or medications such as NSAID or blood thinners, you should discuss with your doctor before using CBD oil to discuss any potential complications regarding reduced CYP450 enzyme activity.

But Isn’t it All Natural?

You may be thinking that CBD is completely safe because it comes from a plant and it’s all natural.  That being said, the reality is we don’t know for sure if adverse reactions are possible in high enough doses.  

Even though CBD comes from the hemp plant, many natural herbal supplements have been shown to pose some risks and carry adverse side effects such as St John’s Wort, Echinacea, Ginkgo Biloba, Saw Palmetto, as well as Chaparral, Comfrey, Kava, and Skullcap.

Researchers have also identified over 20 traditional Chinese medicinal herbs that have been shown to possibly cause liver toxicity, despite being used for centuries.

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Side Effects of CBD Oil Depends on Dosage

As with any treatment, dosage has a direct correlation not only on the effectiveness of the treatment, but also to the prevalence of side effects.

Since CBD is not regulated by the FDA, there is no standard therapeutic effective dose for specific medical conditions, so many people are left wondering how much CBD oil should I take?

Furthermore, everyone reacts differently to CBD.  Several factors influence each person’s optimal dose of CBD including weight, diet, metabolism, sleep patterns, stress levels and genetics and it may take a bit of trial and error to find the right dose of CBD oil for you.

We always suggest starting with a low dose (10-20 mg of CBD) and see how you react.  You can slowly increase the dose over the next few days until you find the most effective dose for you without any adverse side effects.

High Quality CBD Oil Products Are Important for Safety and Reduced Risk of Side Effects

Since CBD is not yet regulated, and there is no external body holding CBD companies accountable, there is no guarantee that a product you purchase contains a safe or effective level of CBD.  

In fact, a 2017 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that 70 percent of CBD products sold online are incorrectly labeled.

The worst thing you can do is to pick up some random CBD product from your local vape shop, (or God forbid… a gas station!) without doing any research.  

It’s up to you as the consumer to educate yourself on what to look for when buying CBD oil products and not put yourself in danger, or waste your money and experience ineffective results.

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Here are some tips when considering CBD products:

  • Always review certificate of analysis (COA’s) and/or 3rd party lab reports to ensure the products contains what is on the label
  • Look for products that are manufactured in a GMP certified (Good Manufacturing Principles) facility and that the lab is registered with the FDA
  • Look for CBD from hemp that is organically grown, preferably in the USA
  • Make sure you understand the difference between full spectrum, broad spectrum and CBD isolate
  • Only purchase from a reputable company that is focused on quality and standing up for the health and safety of the consumer, rather than just making a quick buck

Key Takeaways

  • Cannabis has been used as a medicine for centuries with no history of lethal doses.
  • CBD derived from hemp is federally legal, while THC and CBD derived from marijuana is still illegal.
  • CBD works with our endocannabinoid system to help regulate various functions such as mood, pain sensitivity and sleep patterns.
  • CBD is non addictive.
  • Side effects of CBD can include diarrhea, changes in appetite, fatigue, dry mouth, nausea, elevated liver enzymes, sleep disorders and infections.
  • Most side effects of CBD oil occur when taken at extremely high doses (10X+) compared to the casual user of over the counter CBD products.
  • Purchasing high quality products from a reputable source is the safest option to avoid the dangers of any unregulated products you consume.
  • Before taking CBD, make sure to consult your healthcare provider first to discuss whether it’s appropriate for you and your condition.


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