5 Common Myths About CBD (Part 1)

With so much “buzz” around hemp and CBD these days, there is a lot of confusion around it and many consumers are left with incorrect misconceptions about whether CBD is legal, what CBD actually does, or where CBD comes from.

In this two-part series, we’ll go over some of the most common falsehoods around CBD and hopefully clarify the myths that we hear almost daily. If you’re brand new to CBD, you should start with our Beginner’s Guide to CBD.

So here we go…

1. CBD Is Just Marijuana

Saying CBD is just marijuana is like saying calcium is just cows.

CBD is a chemical compound and marijuana is a plant.  While CBD can surely be extracted from marijuana, the majority of CBD products you see on the market are extracted from hemp, which is a different strain of the cannabis plant than marijuana.

The confusion stems from the fact that hemp and marijuana are very similar in terms of physical appearance, taste and smell.  The main difference between hemp and marijuana lies in their chemical makeup.  Marijuana contains significant levels of THC (the compound responsible for its intoxicating effects), while hemp contains only trace amounts.

Therefore, marijuana is more associated with recreational use while CBD (from hemp) is more associated with therapeutic purposes. 

That being said, THC has many therapeutic benefits of its own, and when combined with CBD, they can be a powerhouse treatment for many serious conditions and ailments due to the entourage effect.

2. CBD Makes You High

Since CBD is extracted from the cannabis plant, many people assume it will get you “high” just like recreational marijuana. However, CBD does not produce a euphoric high or psychoactive effects.

Our body has an endocannabinoid system (ECS) that helps regulate functions such as sleep, immune-system response, and pain sensitivity.  Our ECS receives signals from cannabinoids, which can be produced internally (endocannabinoids) or they can come from plants (phytocannabinoids).

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THC is the cannabinoid that affects the ECS receptors and activates the brain’s reward system, producing excess pleasure chemicals such as dopamine, leading to mental impairment or intoxication.

Alternatively, CBD influences the body to use its own internal cannabinoids more efficiently, either by inhibiting or stimulating other cannabinoids in the ECS, promoting homeostasis and balance throughout the body. This helps regulate our sleep patterns, mood, pain sensitivity and immune response, but it won’t get you high… sorry.

3. CBD Doesn’t Work

Because of the lack of FDA regulation on CBD, companies are not legally allowed to make any claims that CBD cures or treats any diseases, and rightly so.  However, in 2018 the FDA approved the first ever CBD derived drug (Epidiolex) to treat two rare forms of epilepsy called Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome and Dravet Syndrome, which debunks the fallacy that CBD is not effective.

In recent years, there have been countless credible studies on hemp-derived CBD as well as other cannabis derived compounds in the treatment of many conditions and ailments.  A search for “cannabidiol” on the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website will yield thousands of results, with the list growing daily.

Besides clinical and scientific studies, there is now way too much anecdotal evidence of lives being changed by CBD and other cannabis derived compounds.  People all over the world are discovering this natural alternative treatment to traditional prescription medications and hopefully the FDA will soon step in and create formal guidelines and criteria for what can be said about CBD and its effects.

There are many different factors involved in how CBD will work for you, including how much CBD you should take, what kind of CBD you’re taking and where you’re getting your CBD. If you’ve tried CBD and it hasn’t worked for you, there can be several reasons why.

4. CBD Is a Cure-all

Due to the surge in popularity of CBD in recent years, there is the opposite spectrum of whether CBD is effective or not. Many people believe CBD is a miracle cure-all and a quick treatment that will fix everything with no side effects.  In reality, each individual has their own genetic make up, their own conditions and symptoms they are suffering from, as well as their own habits and lifestyles.

Our endocannabinoid system is like our fingerprints, no one has the exact same structure, and one person’s ECS deficiencies are not equal to anyone else’s. Unfortunately, because everyone is different, no treatment works for everyone all the time.

Some CBD manufacturers have come under FDA scrutiny for wild, unconfirmed claims of CBD being a cure-all for cancer and other conditions. While CBD may prove to be a viable option for managing anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain, additional research as well as FDA regulation is needed in order to derive a comprehensive lists of conditions it can treat.

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5. CBD is illegal

While CBD is readily available in most parts of the US, its exact legal status is still in flux.

CBD has always been lumped in with THC/marijuana as a controlled substance until the recent passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, which reclassified hemp as an agricultural product, thus deeming CBD derived from hemp federally legal in the US (as long as it contains less than 0.3% THC).

Even if you make sure that your CBD comes from hemp, some federal agencies and some state laws are not in line with federal regulations.

The FDA has also stated that a CBD product cannot be considered a “dietary supplement” or “food additive” because it has been “authorized for investigation as a new drug…” meaning the drug Epidiolex.

It will take some time for all the regulatory agencies (FDA, DEA, USDA, etc.) to get in sync with a consolidated message, as well as state laws that regulate hemp and medicinal marijuana. Each person will need to determine if CBD products are legal in a specific state and should become familiar with their local cannabis laws.

Marijuana, and CBD derived from marijuana, is still federally illegal in the US.

Key Takeaways

  • CBD is not marijuana, CBD is a chemical compound which can be derived from either marijuana or hemp.
  • CBD does not make you high.
  • There are many studies confirming the growing list of conditions and symptoms CBD can help with.
  • CBD is not a panacea solution or remedy for all conditions or diseases.
  • The legal status of CBD is still a grey area, depending on the local laws of the state you live in.

What’s the Difference Between Hemp and Marijuana?

Hemp and marijuana are closely related and the terms are often used interchangeably, and despite having a practically identical physical appearance, there are key differences between hemp vs “weed”. Properly distinguishing the difference between hemp and marijuana requires an examination of the types of cannabis, their chemical profile, their uses and legality.

Types of Cannabis Plants

There are three main cannabis subspecies that differ in physical and chemical characteristics. 

Cannabis Sativa plants are tall, have narrow leaflets, and generally produce low levels of THC. 

Cannabis Indica plants are typically shorter, have both wide and narrow leaflet variations, and have high to moderate amounts of THC.

Cannabis Ruderalis plants are essentially wild cannabis variations that are only 1-2 feet tall, have short flowering periods, and produce minimal amounts of THC.

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Differences Between Hemp and Marijuana

Hemp is derived from the cannabis sativa plant and was originally cultivated in China. Mostly used for industrial purposes, hemp is utilized for a myriad of purposes around the world. Hemp is one of the oldest and most widely-used forms of cannabis.

Marijuana strains are typically referred to as either “Sativa” or “Indica” depending on their effects, but most marijuana is actually derived from variations of the cannabis Indica plant. Marijuana has been used recreationally, and for its medicinal properties for thousands of years.

1. Chemical Profile

We are often asked, “Does hemp have THC?” or “Is hemp a drug?”… This is the key element that differentiates hemp vs marijuana. Hemp and marijuana are both derived from the cannabis plant, but each has unique genetics and its own chemical profile. 

The main distinguishing characteristic of hemp vs marijuana is hemp’s lower THC content. Hemp contains less than 0.3% THC while marijuana contains 10-30% THC on average.

2. Usage

Hemp fibers are used in fabrics and textiles, yarns, paper, carpeting, and even furniture, while hemp seeds and hemp seed oil are used as ingredients in food and beverages.

According to the U.S. government, cannabis is designated “marijuana” if it is used as a recreational drug or for therapeutic purposes and contains more than 0.3% THC. By this definition, any cannabis product that produces a psychoactive effect is considered marijuana.

3. Legality

Furthermore, hemp and marijuana both differ in how they are treated legally. Since both are derived from the cannabis plant and are hard to distinguish visually, hemp and marijuana were both considered controlled substances until recently. 

Since the 2018 Farm Bill, hemp has been reclassified as an agricultural product, and is legal under certain restrictions. 

The U.S. government defines hemp as cannabis with less than .3% THC content, and any product exceeding that threshold is deemed illegal. A primary reason for this change in legality was that industrial hemp is very promising for both the agriculture industry and for consumers.

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What about CBD?

CBD (cannabidiol) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid present in the cannabis plant, and the second most abundant cannabinoid after THC. CBD has been shown to reduce or amplify the effects of THC, but it also provides numerous benefits on its own. It has proved effective in treating pain, inflammation, anxiety, and a wide range of disorders with little to no side effects.

CBD is present in both hemp and marijuana, but it can exist in particularly higher amounts within hemp, with maintaining a THC content below 0.3%.  

CBD derived from hemp is considered legal according to the 2018 Farm Bill, while CBD derived from marijuana is still considered illegal.

Furthermore, CBD derived from marijuana will trigger a positive result on a drug test due to the higher THC content, while CBD derived from hemp should not be detected on a drug test.

Key Takeaways

  • There are three strains of cannabis plants; Sativa, Indica and Ruderalis.
  • Hemp and marijuana come from the same plant species and are closely related, but there are differences in their chemical makeup, uses, and legal treatment.
  • The key difference is that hemp contains less than 0.3% THC, while marijuana contains 10-30% THC.
  • CBD can be derived from both hemp and marijuana, but only hemp-derived CBD is legal in the US.
  • CBD derived from hemp should not show up on a drug test due to the low/no THC content.

Will CBD Oil Show Up On A Drug Test?

One of the most frequently asked questions, and biggest fears, people have when considering CBD for the first time is “Will CBD oil show up on a drug test?” For some people, particularly if their job depends on it, failing a drug test due to CBD can have serious ramifications.

Drug tests through urine samples typically only look for THC, which is the chemical compound in cannabis that makes you “high”.  So in short, CBD derived from hemp should not make you fail a drug test. However, some CBD products do contain amounts of THC.

You may have heard that CBD can be converted to THC by your stomach acids, but a 2017 study has since debunked that myth.

Key Question: Where Does CBD Come From?

CBD Oil is one of the 100+ chemical compounds present in the cannabis plant.  CBD can be extracted from either marijuana or hemp. This is a central issue that has caused much confusion in the industry and can determine whether or not CBD oil will show up on a drug test.

What’s the Difference Between Marijuana and Hemp?

Both marijuana and hemp are varieties of the cannabis plant.  They generally look and smell the same, but their chemical makeup is different.  The main difference is that marijuana typically contains 5 to 20% THC, while hemp contains only trace amounts of THC (less than 0.3%).

THC is the cannabinoid that makes you high.  So while you can’t get high from hemp, the trace amounts of THC in hemp could be problematic in regards to drug testing.

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Is CBD Legal?

In essence, the legality of CBD depends on whether it’s extracted from marijuana or from hemp. Marijuana has been illegal in the US since 1937, therefore CBD products derived from marijuana are also illegal.  Hemp on the other hand has gone through several legal changes over the last 5 years.  

The 2014 US Farm Bill defined industrial hemp as distinct from marijuana and authorized institutions in certain states to cultivate and conduct hemp research through pilot programs.

With the passage of the 2018 US Farm Bill, hemp has been fully legalized on a federal level, which includes hemp derived products such as CBD oil.  In essence, hemp-derived CBD products are legal in all 50 states, but the exact application of the law is still murky in some areas.

What Type of CBD Products Contain THC?

Besides the source from which the CBD is extracted from (marijuana vs hemp), you’ll also want to consider the type of CBD hemp product you’re consuming.  You’ll need to understand the difference between full spectrum CBD, broad spectrum CBD, and CBD isolate.

In a nutshell…

Full Spectrum CBD

Whole plant hemp extract, including trace amounts of THC up to 0.3%.

Broad Spectrum CDB

Whole plant hemp extract, with THC removed.

CBD Isolate

Contains CBD only, with no other compounds from the hemp plant.

As you can see, only full spectrum CBD oil contain THC.  Although it only contains tiny amounts that are not enough to have any intoxicating effects, there is a slight chance that it could show up on a drug test.  There are also factors such as how long CBD stays in your system, how much CBD oil you take, and how long you’ve been using it.

If you are concerned about failing a drug test with CBD, or work in an industry that gets regularly drug tested such as healthcare professionals, bus or truck drivers, government employees, etc, we suggest you DO NOT consume full spectrum CBD products.

All Tessera Naturals products are made with broad spectrum CBD.  Broad spectrum CBD oil begins as a full spectrum extract, but we go one step further and use a purification process which selectively removes the trace amounts of THC from our hemp oil, resulting in a 0% THC product.

Broad spectrum products are generally safe to consume without the risk of failing a drug testing.  That being said, it depends on the testing methods and standards of the lab administering your drug test. 

As mentioned, most labs only search for THC and do not screen for CBD.  While highly unlikely, there may be some testing facilities that check for a spectrum of cannabinoids and could trigger a false positive on a drug test.  This is similar to poppy seeds that can trigger a false positive test for opium. We suggest contacting your lab and asking them about their testing methods.

CBD isolate products do not contain any THC, nor any other cannabinoids, and are practically impossible to trigger a positive THC drug test.  Unfortunately, consuming CBD isolate products are not as effective as full spectrum or broad spectrum CBD as they do not produce the beneficial “entourage effect” you get from the whole plant extract.

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Quality Matters Whether CBD Oil Will Show Up on a Drug Test

Due to the lack of regulations on the CBD industry, you need to make sure you’re purchasing your CBD products from a reputable source.  Unfortunately, advertised THC levels in some CBD products can be unreliable.  There have been many cases of mislabeling, cross contamination, false claims or flat out deception from some manufacturers regarding the amount of CBD and THC in their products.

Make sure to know whether the CBD products comes from marijuana or hemp.  Read labels and ensure it lists whether it is a full spectrum, broad spectrum or isolate.  Also, look for specific amounts of CBD and THC contained in the product.

Lastly, make sure to review 3rd party lab tests confirming the amount of CBD and how much THC, if any, is in the product.

Key Takeaways

  • CBD can be extracted from marijuana or hemp, but marijuana contains significant amounts of THC while hemp only contains up to 0.3% THC.
  • Drug tests only look for THC and do not screen for CBD, but some CBD products contain THC.
  • Full spectrum CBD contains trace amounts of THC, which may show up on a drug test.
  • Broad spectrum CBD and CBD isolate products do not contain any THC and should not show up on a drug test.
  • Read labels and review lab reports to confirm the content of CBD and THC in each product.
  • Do your due diligence to ensure the CBD products you purchase are high quality and from a reputable company.
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How Much CBD Should I Take?

One of the most common questions we receive is “How much CBD should I take?”  If you’ve tried hemp CBD but felt a little lost when it comes to dosage, you’re not alone.  Or perhaps you’re interested in trying CBD for the first time but don’t know where to start. Hint: start with our Beginner’s Guide to CBD.

Visit our CBD Dosage Calculator for a starting recommendation based on weight, condition and severity.

Many people have tried taking CBD and say that “it didn’t work”.  While there are many reasons why CBD may not have worked for them, one of the main issues could be that they did not put enough time or effort into establishing the most effective dose for them.

So, the answer to the questions of how much CBD you should take… well, it depends.

Probably not what you were hoping to hear, but unfortunately CBD dosage does not have a simple straightforward answer. Unfortunately, there is no commonly established standard dose for CBD and it is influenced by many factors we’ll cover below. Finding the right dose of CBD will take some trial and error.

So How Much CBD Should I Take?

As mentioned, it will require a bit of experimentation to find the right dose of CBD for you.

We always suggest starting with a low dose (10-20 mg of CBD per day) and see how you react.  You can slowly increase the dose over the next few days to find the most effective dose for your goals.

Most people stick to somewhere in the 10-80mg of CBD per day in the long run, with occasional higher doses for more sever conditions or “flare ups”.

Common Factors That Affect CBD Dosage

1. The Type of CBD you Take

It’s important to understand whether the hemp product is full spectrum CBD, broad spectrumCBD, or CBD Isolate.  To read more about the difference between the three, see our previous blog article etitled Full spectrum CBD vs Broad Spectrum CBD vs CBD Isolate.

2. The Method of Consuming CBD

There are many formats of consuming CBD.  Whether you use a CBD vape product, a CBD tinctures or consume CBD edibles, they will each offer different levels of absorption and bioavailability, which can be a large factor in dosage. See chart on absorption and bioavailability for different types of CBD products here.

3. Genetics and Lifestyle

Your genetics and individual chemistry play a huge role in how CBD will affect you. We like to use the analogy that CBD oil is similar to caffeine in that some people are just more sensitive to caffeine than others and will feel its effects much more while consuming far less.

Your lifestyle also plays a role in how CBD will affect you personally.  These factors can include diet, exercise, weight, metabolism, sleep patterns and stress levels.

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4. Serious Ailments vs General Wellness

Another factor in determining how much CBD you should take, is why you’re taking it.  Are you suffering from severe chronic pain due to a debilitating condition such as Fibromyalgia or MS? Are you looking for general relaxation or to curb minor bouts of anxiety from time to time?  Are you looking for better sleep? Or are you simply seeking to add CBD hemp oil for balance and use it to enhance your daily wellness regimen?  

5. The Quality of CBD Products

Lastly, the quality of CBD products you purchase will vastly influence the required dosage in order to reap its benefits.  Cheap, low quality hemp and CBD will not have the same attributes of a pure, organic, high quality CBD processed using the highest standards.

Can I Take Too Much CBD Oil?

To date, there has not been any reported fatal cases of cannabis related overdoses. A 2017 study confirmed that CBD, taken even in high doses up to 1,500 mg a day, is generally well tolerated by humans.

Even though there seems to be no evidence that you can overdose on CBD, we suggest speaking with your doctor before introducing CBD (or any new supplement) to make sure it will not cause any complications or adverse drug interactions.

How Do I Calculate CBD dosage?

When trying to figure out how much CBD oil you should take, it’s important to understand how to calculate dosage in the first place.  

For CBD capsulees, CBD pet treats and other edibles, the dosage is clearly listed on the package, just like any other labeled food item or supplement.

CBD tinctures are a bit different as they allow for flexibility. While the basic dose per serving is listed on the label, you can play around with how much CBD to to take each time with the dropper by using a little basic math.

For example, our Tessera Naturals tinctures come in two strengths, 500 mg and 1000 mg.  If you purchase the 500 mg strength, that means there is 500 mgs of CBD in the entire bottle.  The size of the bottle is 30ml. The dropper in the bottle measures 1ml, giving you 30 doses per bottle.  If you divide 500 mgs of CBD by 30 servings, you will get 16.6 mg of CBD per serving.  

Like we said, you can be flexible and decide to take only half dropper, which will give you 8.3 mgs of CBD, or even quarter of a dropper, which will dispense 4.2 mgs of CBD.

We’ve created this graphic below which easily shows the different dosages per dropper for both our 500 mg and 1000 mg tinctures.

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In the video below, co-founder of Tessera Naturals, Jason Cohen, answers the fundamental question on How much CBD should I take as a beginner?

Video Transcript:

Hey guys just wanted to pop on here real quick and answer a question I recently got, actually it’s a pretty frequently asked question in terms of how much CBD you should take as a beginner, so…

Unfortunately there really isn’t a straight answer because it’s different for everyone, it depends on a lot of different factors, your weight, your metabolism, your genetics, what you’re suffering from, if you’re suffering from ailments that’s causing chronic pain, or maybe you’re just having a few little bouts of insomnia, or just anxiety, things like that, so it all depends

And it’s also kind of like caffeine, you know some people are just more sensitive than others, some people can drink pots and pots of coffee all day and be fine, other people can drink a cup of coffee in the afternoon and they won’t sleep all night, so it just depends on that

So our advice is start low, that means maybe try 5, 10, maybe 15 milligrams in a day and see how you react, see how you feel and if you’re not getting much response, maybe slowly increase from there over the next few days until you find the right optimal dose for you, because it’s gonna be different for everyone

Alright so hopefully that helps, but in a recap just start low and slowly increase from there until you find your dose, alright hope that helps, see ya

Key Takeaways

  • CBD dosing is not a one-size-fits-all, finding the optimal dose is an individual process that each person must undertake with some trial and error.
  • It’s always best to start with a low dose and slowly increase over time until you’ve found the most effective dose for you. 
  • Read labels and make sure you understand the amount of CBD in the entire package vs calculating the CBD for each dose.
  • Many factors can influence a person’s optimal dose of CBD such as the type of CBD, the method of ingestion, your genetics, lifestyle, goals and the quality of the CBD product itself.
  • Even at extremely high doses, CBD is generally well tolerated by humans.
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Does taking CBD for Migraines work? What About Other Treatments?

Taking CBD for migraines has been getting more attention lately as a safe alternative treatment. With the range of therapeutic benefits that CBD hemp oil provides, it’s no surprise that it is an effective option for alleviating the debilitating pain common with migraines.

CBD is a cannabinoid within the cannabis plant that isn’t psychoactive like its other primary cannabinoid, THC. For this reason, CBD is one of the most common constituents of medical marijuana, and is used to treat symptoms of epilepsy, chronic pain disorders, and inflammation.

Before we go over natural alternative treatments for migraines, and how hemp-derived CBD can help, we first need to understand the nature of migraines.

What is a Migraine?

A migraine is defined as a severe, chronic, and painful headache that usually occurs on one side of the head, often behind or above the eye. The pain may then travel to the eyes, face, and sinuses. The pain experienced from a migraine can range from a mild headache to a throbbing, debilitating pain; unfortunately, most migraine sufferers fall into this latter category.

In addition to the headache, common migraine symptoms include vomiting, dizziness, nausea, double vision, and tunnel vision. Some migraines can be preceded by an aura, or can just occur without warning. Common warning auras include a sudden sensitivity to light or sound, hallucinations, hot flashes, tingling in the limbs, or numbness on one side of the body.

Migraines are far worse than just a bad headache. The fear of having a debilitating migraine can have a severe impact on one’s life, which is why substantial research into migraine treatment is being conducted.

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Statistics on Migraines

Migraines affects 12% of people in the United States, and it is estimated that around 10% of people suffer from them worldwide. Furthermore, 85% of chronic migraine sufferers are women. The peak incidences of migraines occur between the ages of thirty and forty, but children and elders have also been known to suffer from them. Research has suggested that the source of migraines might be genetic. One study found that 70-80% of migraine sufferers have family who also experience migraines.

Research has suggested that migraines might be caused by dilated blood vessels in the brain due to chemical imbalances. This causes the blood vessels to press on neighboring nerves and brain tissue, which in response creates the headache of a migraine. Other than that, not much is known about the neurological or vascular causes of migraines.

2 Tips to Reduce Migraines

The causes of migraines will vary from person to person, and there is now a variety of treatment methods available today that aim to improve migraine sufferers’ quality of life, but avoiding migraines whenever possible can help reduce the frequency and severity of migraines.

Avoid Triggers

Different things trigger different people, so most migraine sufferers work with their doctors to track their migraines and determine what may be causing them. Even though triggering factors will vary, some of them have been widely accepted as affecting most migraine sufferers.

Food such as dairy products, alcoholic drinks, caffeinated and carbonated drinks, processed foods, MSG, and pickled foods have all been shown to trigger migraines in a substantial amount of people. Moreover, certain medications or the flickering of televisions or computer screens have been associated with higher migraine frequency. Migraines can be avoided by limiting or eliminating the intake of these trigger foods, or by reducing the amount of time spent in front of screens.

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Reduce Stress

Stress has been shown to be one of the leading causes of migraine. This is perhaps due to how several different conditions can lead to stress. Stressors such as anger, frustration, and depression are some of the most common migraine triggers, and even getting too much or too little sleep can lead to stress. It is for this reason that migraine sufferers should take as many measures as possible to reduce stress in their lives.

Activities that stimulate or calm the mind such as aerobic exercise, pilates, yoga and meditation have been shown to alleviate the symptoms of migraines. In addition, massages and getting the proper amount of sleep are effective ways of preventing stress-induced migraines.

Other Natural Treatment for Migraines

Prescription and over-the-counter medications are often used to treat migraines, but they often come with unpleasant or even dangerous side effects. Besides CBD (more on that later), there are a number of natural remedies that a migraine sufferer can explore to try and determine which is best for them. Here are some viable alternatives for migraine treatment.

Essential Oils

Essential oils have been used historically to treat a wide range of ailments, including anxiety, insomnia, and headaches. Two particularly useful oils for treating migraines are those made out of lavender and peppermint.

One study conducted a three-month lavender treatment plan for migraine sufferers, and the results showed that the frequency and severity of migraines was significantly reduced. Peppermint is also effective in treating headaches due to its active ingredient menthol. Applying a 10% menthol solution substantially reduced the migraine symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light in one study. The use of essential oils has been confirmed as a safe and effective method for alleviating migraine symptoms.

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Studies have indicated that small amounts of caffeine have been effective in reducing the frequency and intensity of migraines, but on the other hand, excessive caffeine intake has also been known to cause headaches that can trigger migraines. Those who are habitual caffeine drinkers are particularly at risk for caffeine withdrawal migraines.


Acupressure is an alternative therapy in which physical pressure is applied at various points on the body to alleviate symptoms such as pain. In addition to its pain-relieving benefits, acupressure has been shown to be effective in reducing the nausea associated with migraines. Even though research has confirmed acupressure as a viable treatment for migraine, research into acupuncture has yielded inconclusive results.


Ginger has been shown to have numerous health benefits, and is particularly useful for treating nausea without adverse side effects. Furthermore, in a 2011 study, ginger was 24% more effective in eliminating or relieving migraine headaches than a placebo.


Magnesium plays an important role in the body’s nervous, muscle, and immune systems. As a result, magnesium deficiency is associated with many neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and migraines. Taking magnesium supplements or eating magnesium-rich foods can potentially prevent or reduce the symptoms of migraines.

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Capsaicin is a chemical compound present in chili peppers, and it has been shown to have pain-reducing and desensitizing effects. In one study, all patients who inhaled capsaicin nasally once a day reported a 50-80% improvement in their migraines.

How Can CBD Help For Migraines?

Medical cannabis is used to treat symptoms of several diseases and disorders, but one of its most common uses is for alleviating chronic pain. Cannabis use has been demonstrated to quickly eliminate headaches, making it a promising treatment option for migraines.

In particular, hemp-derived CBD provides several pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects, and its anti-inflammatory qualities have been measured to be several hundred times more effective than aspirin. CBD has an effect that’s very similar to capsaicin, but it doesn’t cause an unpleasant burning sensation. In addition, hemp CBD doesn’t have the same psychotropic effects of THC, so its analgesic properties can be enjoyed without any intoxication. CBD’s pain-relieving qualities make it a viable natural treatment option for migraine sufferers.

It has been theorized that migraines could in part be caused by an endocannabinoid deficiency, which could explain why cannabis use has shown to be more helpful than traditional medications. However, more research needs to be done on this topic to yield conclusive evidence of this.

One research study found that migraine frequency and intensity decreased in patients who used medical cannabis. Furthermore, in this same study, cannabis was shown to be effective in both alleviating an active headache and preventing future episodes. The participants of this study reported that they preferred medical cannabis over prescription medications since it was more effective and caused fewer side effects.

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Despite the limited research conducted on CBD oil as a treatment for migraines and headaches, its role in the endocannabinoid system provides undeniable relief. Using CBD during a warning aura may help prevent the occurrence of a migraine, and regular use may drastically reduce them outright. For migraine sufferers today, hemp CBD can be an effective and much safer alternative to prescription medications.

Key Takeaways

  • A migraine is defined as a severe, debilitating headache that can be accompanied by vomiting, dizziness, nausea, double vision, and tunnel vision.
  • Migraines can also cause sensitivity to light or sound, hallucinations, hot flashes, tingling or numbness.
  • Stress, as well as certain foods, medications or flickering screens can be triggers for migraines and should be avoided or eliminated.
  • Alternative natural treatments for migraines can include essential oils, caffeine, acupressure, ginger, magnesium and capsaicin.
  • CBD has been used to treat symptoms of migraines or reduce the frequency of migraines due to its pain relieving and anti-inflammatory properties.


Tessera Naturals topical salve contains 500mgs of CBD as well as Lavender essential oil for a perfect natural remedy against migraines and headaches. Rub some on your temples, sit back, close your eyes and feel the relief.

Tessera Naturals CBD Tinctures contain CBD oil within an organic coconut oil carrier base. Our mint flavor tincture includes organic peppermint essential oil that has been shown to help relieve headaches and migraines.

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CBD Oil for Sleep and Insomnia. Does it Work?

Cannabis is becoming increasingly valued for its therapeutic properties as new research continues to emerge. The cannabinoids within the cannabis plant all offer different medicinal effects, with THC and CBD being the most heavily studied. CBD in particular is known for producing a range of therapeutic benefits without the intoxication that comes with THC use. Many people are finding CBD oil for sleep aid to be a natural alternative to prescription sleeping pills.

CBD from hemp is commonly used to treat symptoms from many disorders such as multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and epilepsy. In addition, using CBD oil for insomnia is becoming more and more popular due to its relaxing and sedative effects, which makes it a promising alternative treatment for sleep disorders.

Furthermore, evidence shows that combining CBD with other natural remedies such as chamomile tea and melatonin can really enhance a good night’s sleep.

CBD Oil For Sleep and Insomnia

Insomnia is a sleep disorder that is estimated to affect up to 10% of the adult population. Insomnia is defined as having difficulty falling and staying asleep for at least three nights per week, over a period of three or more months.

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There are various medications designed to treat insomnia, but they often come with unpleasant side effects. For this reason, many clinicians recommend taking a non-pharmacological approach to treating insomnia before resorting to medication. If you are suffering from insomnia, then CBD hemp oil could be a great option to try.

One study has shown that CBD use triggers marked improvements in overall sleep quality. The patients reported minimal side effects from taking CBD oil for insomnia, and most of them enjoyed experimenting with a natural treatment solution rather than taking the medication route. Even though it’s only one example of CBD benefiting insomniacs, it strongly suggests that CBD could be a beneficial alternative to traditional sleep medications.

Underlying Issues Causing Insomnia

CBD could be quite useful for dealing with comorbidity (the simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditions). It is fairly common for depression and anxiety to accompany bouts of insomnia, and vice versa. Hemp-derived CBD could potentially be used to treat all of these conditions at once.

CBD has well-documented anxiety-reducing effects, and it also helps the brain regulate serotonin levels, which is important when dealing with depression. Given all of its therapeutic benefits, it would be very convenient to not have to worry about managing different medications to treat different disorders, and instead use hemp-derived CBD as a potential all-purpose treatment method. 

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How Much CBD Oil Should You Take for Insomnia?

Interestingly, CBD has shown to be a stimulant at low doses; while the sedative effects of CBD are mostly present at larger doses. As is common with most anxiety relievers, sedatives, and anticonvulsants, CBD generates its therapeutic effects by decreasing activation of the central nervous system, making the user less alert. 

Furthermore, higher doses of CBD have been shown to significantly reduce the pulse rate when combined with small amounts of THC. Not only does this relaxing quality make it easier to fall asleep, but it can also be instrumental in treating panic and anxiety disorders. In fact, evidence has suggested that CBD’s sedative effects are mostly due to a reduction in anxiety.

Visit our free online CBD Dosage Calculator for a good starting point on finding the right CBD dose.

Lastly, there is the issue of absorption, bioavailability and how long the CBD will last in your system. For instance, CBD capsules will take longer to “kick-in” but they will also last longer in your system than taking CBD through a tincture.

More Research Needed for Using CBD Oil for Sleep

Even though there is much evidence to suggest that taking CBD oil for insomnia and sleep issues can be very helpful, research on this topic is still relatively new. There are even studies that disprove CBD’s role in affecting sleep, so it’s clear that more research needs to be done before a conclusive answer is reached. 

It is also unclear whether or not CBD alone responsible for its sleep-promoting qualities. There are terpenes in hemp, such as myrcene, that are known to be sedative, and CBD’s sedative effects often intermingle with those of THC in a cannabis product. For now, it seems that CBD can have great potential as a sleeping aid, but it remains to be seen if it has this quality in isolation. 

All Tessera Naturals products are made with a broad spectrum hemp extract. Evidence suggests that consuming a full spectrum or broad spectrum CBD products is more effective overall than consuming a CBD isolate due to the “entourage effect“.

Key Takeaways

  • CBD can be used as a stimulant at low doses, and a sedative at high doses.
  • CBD has a number of sedative, anxiety-reducing, and anticonvulsant effects that can all potentially aid in falling asleep.
  • CBD has potential as a treatment method for comorbidity – that is, it could be used to treat two or more diseases/conditions that are suffered at the same time.
  • There has been limited research on CBD’s impact on sleep. More studies need to be conducted in order to find out if CBD can have an effect in isolation.
  • The entourage effect has been shown to aid in the effectiveness of taking CBD oil for insomnia.
  • Combining CBD with melatonin can be an effective sleep aid.

What Are Other Cannabinoids beyond CBD and THC?

Despite the fact that there are estimated to be over 120 total cannabinoids present in the cannabis plant, relatively little is known about the minor cannabinoids compared to THC and CBD.

While studies have shown that these two cannabinoids are largely responsible for the psychoactive and therapeutic effects of cannabis, the other cannabinoids have their own unique effects on the mind and body, and many work synergistically with the two major cannabinoids to enhance their impact. 

Many of the identified cannabinoids are very similar in structure to one another, but even slight structural differences have been known to produce a wide range of physiological effects. It is no surprise then, with all the potential benefits of the lesser-known cannabinoids, that researchers have deemed them worth examining. 

Do All Cannabinoids Work the Same Way?

The two major cannabinoids, THC and CBD, produce the majority of their effects by interacting with cannabinoid receptors in our endocannabinoid system, which has been shown to regulate functions such as cognition, pain sensation, appetite, memory, sleep, immune function, and mood.

However, some cannabinoids are able to produce physiological effects outside of the endocannabinoid system. For example, a common behavior of certain cannabinoids is to activate transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels), which influence sensations such as pain, temperature, taste, and vision. Based on this evidence, it is clear that research on cannabinoids cannot be restricted to how they interact with CB1 and CB2 receptors alone.

With all of this information in mind, let’s take a look at some of the lesser-known cannabinoids that are present in the cannabis plant, as well as the benefits they provide.

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Cannabigerol (CBG)

What is CBG?  CBG is a non-psychotropic cannabinoid that is the second most abundant in the cannabis plant, and is commonly used to stimulate appetite and treat pain and anxiety. It is interesting to note that the carboxylic acid form of CBG, cannabigerolic acid, is the precursor to all other cannabinoids, including THC, CBD, and CBC.

In the beginning of the cannabis plant’s growth, CBG makes up about 16.3% of total cannabinoid content, but this percentage drops to about 1% as the plant matures. In a manner similar to CBC, CBG does not bind to CB1 receptors, but it has an effect on the endocannabinoid system by increasing levels of anandamide in the brain. Out of all the cannabinoids, CBG has been shown to have the most potent antibacterial and antibiotic properties. Since CBG is an antagonist of CB1 receptors, it could also possibly lessen the effects of THC. 

Interesting Fact: CBG has also been used as an effective insect repellent when combined with the terpene limonene.

Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)

THCV is a cannabinoid with a structure almost identical to that of THC, but it reacts differently at a molecular level, and thus has unique physiological effects. Like THC, THCV binds to CB1 and CB2 receptors, but at lower doses, THCV can been shown to counteract some of the effects of THC, while enhancing them at higher doses.

In addition, THCV has displayed anticonvulsant, anti-anxiety, and pain-relieving properties, which make it a good potential treatment method for conditions such as epilepsy and PTSD. THCV has even shown to have antipsychotic properties, which could make it a promising solution for alleviating some of the symptoms of schizophrenia. 

Cannabidivarin (CBDV)

Cannabidivarin is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that has a variety of therapeutic benefits. It was first isolated in 1969, but little research has been performed on it since then. CBDV has been shown to have anticonvulsant and anti-epileptic effects, but instead of occurring through binding of cannabinoid receptors, they are caused by activating TRP channels.

As a result, CBDV is used to treat epilepsy without causing intoxication, and has much fewer side effects compared to common anti-epileptic drugs. CBDV is also currently undergoing clinical trials for use in glioma, type 2 diabetes, schizophrenia, and encephalopathy, so its future therapeutic applications seem rather promising.

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Cannabinol (CBN)

Cannabinol is a metabolite of THC that exhibits many immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities. Compared to THC, CBN is only mildly psychoactive; CBN binds selectively to CB2 receptors in the peripheral nervous system, but has minimal activity on CB1 receptors. One of the most interesting benefits of CBN is its potential as an appetite stimulant.

A study suggested that CBN can potentially increase one’s appetite, so it has promising applications for the treatment of eating disorders. Other than that, CBN has been shown to be a powerful sedative, and can also be used to relieve nausea. 

Cannabichromene (CBC)

CBC doesn’t actively bind to either CB1 or CB2 receptors, but it affects the endocannabinoid system indirectly by inhibiting the absorption of anandamide, a neurotransmitter that binds to cannabinoid receptors. CBC has shown to be more prevalent in the more psychoactive strains of cannabis, whereas higher CBD concentrations are more common in fiber-like strains used in hemp.

CBC and THC have been shown to have a strong synergistic relationship, as CBC increases levels of THC in the brain, and THC, in turn, enhances the pharmacological effects of CBC. When used together with THC, CBC displays anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and pain-relieving qualities. Cannabichromene is due to receive a lot more research in the near future, largely because of its relationship with THC.

Cannabichromevarin (CBCV)

CBCV is among the least-studied cannabinoids that have been identified. It was discovered in 1975, which was a little later than the more well-known cannabinoids, and not much research has been done on it since then. CBCV is very similar in structure to CBC, so many researchers estimate that it will share some of the same benefits.

Like CBC, CBCV is not psychoactive, so it can be used to provide relief for chronic pain, depression, inflammation, and insomnia without causing any intoxicating effects. CBCV has also been shown to suppress the appetite instead of stimulating it, so it could be useful for those who are trying to control their eating habits.

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What about Terpenes?

No article about cannabinoids would be complete without discussing their relationship with terpenes.  While we’ve already gone more in depth about terpenes here, it’s worth mentioning that terpenes and cannabinoids go hand in hand when consuming cannabis and cannabis derivatives such as hemp CBD products.  

When consumed together, the benefits of cannabinoids, terpenes and other natural compounds found in cannabis work synergistically to enhance the properties of one another.  This is referred to as the “entourage effect”, which means that the effects are greater than the sum of the individual parts.

Tessera Naturals products are all made with broad spectrum CBD.  This means that we start with a full spectrum whole plant extract, then remove the trace amounts of THC while leaving all of the minor cannabinoids and terpenes in tact.  Studies show that full spectrum CBD and broad spectrum CBD are much more effective than CBD isolate, which is only comprised of the CBD cannabinoid alone.

Key Takeaways

  • There are many other cannabinoids in the cannabis plant besides THC and CBD that offer their own range of therapeutic benefits.
  • Cannabinoids primarily activate receptors in the endocannabinoid system, but physiological effects can also occur through TRP channels.
  • Limited research has been done on cannabinoids other than THC and CBD, but that is certainly going to change as the medical benefits of cannabis become more apparent.
  • Many cannabinoids and terpenes act in synergy with one another to enhance their effects exponentially, which is referred to as the “entourage effect”.
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What Are Terpenes

What Are Terpenes?

Terpenes consist of over 50,000 naturally occurring aromatic chemical compounds that are present in all living species, but here we are going to focus on are those that are prevalent in fruits and flowering plants.

There are believed to be a few hundred terpene variations that are common to all plants, but the majority of terpenes are restricted to a specific plant species. Terpenes are largely responsible for giving plants and flowers their signature aromas and flavors, as well as having many therapeutic benefits.

Chemically, all terpenes are comprised of hydrocarbon units–known as isoprene units–which form chain-like sequences of five carbon molecules. The most common plant-specific terpenes are monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and triterpenes, which consist of two, three, four, and six isoprene units respectively.

The size and structure of a terpene determines how water-soluble it is, as well as its volatility; the smaller a terpene, the more unstable it is. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are relatively unstable, and evaporate at room temperature, which is the reason why their scents are easily noticeable.

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What Are The Benefits of Terpenes?

Terpenes have a number of distinctive scents, flavors, and health benefits, all of which are a result of their natural ecological functions. To protect themselves against disease and being fed upon by herbivores, many plants develop terpenes that are toxic to fungi, bacteria, and insects. Furthermore, terpenes serve to attract pollinators to flowers.

The smaller, more volatile terpenes are light enough to travel lengthy distances through the air, and they appeal to the olfactory receptors of many animals. Terpenes will even attract predators and alert nearby plants when a pesky herbivore breaks the skin of a leaf. So, all things considered, terpenes exert a vast influence on nature.

How Are Terpenes Used By Humans?

Throughout history, terpenes have been used for a wide variety of purposes, the most noteworthy being the role terpenes play in our consumption of food. The terpenes in herbs and spices are largely responsible for our perception of flavor.

Their pleasant scents also make them perfect for use in cosmetic products such as perfumes, oils, and lotions, and their natural toxicity allows them to be used for mouthwash, insect repellent, and disinfectants. In addition, terpenes have been used in medications designed to fight cancer and kill malarial parasites

Even though the effects of terpenes are well-documented, there is still a lot of mystery surrounding the roles of specific terpenes in plant biology. Research is continuously learning more about terpenes and uncovering more potential applications for their use. As a more extreme example, researchers are currently trying to figure out how they can use terpenes as a fuel source!

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Terpenes in Cannabis

Cannabis naturally has its own set of terpenes. In total, over 120 terpene variations are present in the cannabis plant. The different concentrations of terpenes will affect the aroma of a particular cannabis strain, but the role of terpenes doesn’t end with dictating scent. Terpenes can work synergistically with cannabinoids such as THC and CBD to target and enhance certain therapeutic effects.

Combining terpenes with cannabinoids has resulted in a promising range of potential applications for therapeutic use, from treating acne, to fighting cancer. Let’s examine the benefits and characteristics of the most common terpenes found in cannabis.


b-Caryophyllene is typically the most abundant terpene present in a cannabis product. It is also prominent in plants and spices such as cinnamon, black pepper, and rosemary, so it has a spicy, pepper-like scent.

Since it selectively binds to CB2 receptors in the body, it is most potent as a pain reliever and anti-inflammatory agent, but it has a variety of additional uses. For example, studies have shown that b-Caryophyllene is effective in treating drug and alcohol addiction when used synergistically with CBD. When combined with THC, it can provide relief for depression and anxiety disorders. b-Caryophyllene has even been shown to relieve the itchiness caused by contact dermatitis.


Pinene is the most commonly encountered terpene in nature, and has a vast amount of medicinal applications. As suggested by its name, pinene has an aroma reminiscent of pine needles, conifers, and sage. It is known to be anti-inflammatory, can serve as an insect repellent, and can even be used to relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis. In addition, pinene has been shown to be effective in treating antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

Another interesting benefit is that low doses of pinene can make breathing easier, so it can be soothing for people with conditions such as asthma. Pinene has also been shown to help counteract the short-term memory loss experienced with THC intoxication.


Linalool is a terpene that’s well-known for having powerful sedative properties, which were first observed during the use of lavender in traditional aromatherapy. The soothing effects of linalool can be useful in treating stress, anxiety, and depression. In particular, linalool has been used in conjunction with CBD to treat psychosis and social anxiety disorder. Furthermore, when paired with THC, it can be used as a local anaesthetic that’s comparable to procaine or menthol. Linalool naturally occurs in plants and spices such as lavender, coriander, and birch trees.

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Limonene is the second most commonly occurring terpene in nature, and is present in the rinds of all citrus fruits. Studies have demonstrated that limonene increases dopamine and serotonin levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, making it a powerful antidepressant, anxiety reliever, and mood elevator.

Limonene has also been shown to be effective in treating a number of cancers, including breast cancer, skin cancer, prostate cancer, and other tumorous growths. Furthermore, limonene has proved to be very anti-bacterial and anti-fungal, so it is commonly paired with CBD to use in acne treatments.


Myrcene is common in highly aromatic plants such as sweet basil, bay leaves, lemongrass, hops, wild thyme, as well as tropical fruits. It can be used to alleviate chronic pain, anxiety, and inflammation. Furthermore, myrcene is often utilized for its soothing properties. It is commonly used to prevent muscle spasms in multiple sclerosis patients, and can also be a potent sleeping aid. Myrcene has even been used to treat sleep disorders by adding it to CBD/THC extracts. Studies have shown that myrcene could also intensify the effects of THC.

Terpenes and the “Entourage Effect”

Terpenes play a key part in the synergistic relationship between the naturally occurring compounds found in cannabis.  CBD and THC as well as 100+ other cannabinoids have their many benefits, but when combined with terpenes, they amplify one another and provide overall therapeutic benefits that are greater than their individual parts.  Consuming full spectrum or broad spectrum hemp extract will lead to a much greater therapeutic effect, over consuming an isolated CBD product, or an isolated terpene product alone.

All Tessera Naturals products are made with broad spectrum Hemp extract. This means that besides CBD, our products contain the full spectrum of beneficial cannabinoids, terpenes and amino acids in hemp (except THC). 

Key Takeaways

  • Terpenes have a significant role in governing nature, and are also a major factor of human life.
  • Terpenes are present in all plants life, and their properties help the plant adapt to its ecological niche.
  • Terpenes are responsible for a plant’s aroma, flavor, and they have various therapeutic effects.
  • The most common terpenes in cannabis include; b-Caryophyllene, Pinene, Linalool, Limonene and Myrcene.
  • Not only are terpenes responsible for the scent of cannabis, but they can also be used synergistically with other terpenes and cannabinoids to produce a desired “entourage effect”.

What is the Entourage Effect?

CBD and The Entourage Effect

CBD is slowly becoming a household name in the natural treatment world for its management of various ailments ranging from chronic pain to anxiety. Little wonder it is fast becoming legalized in numerous countries making it available everywhere from spas, beauty parlors and coffee shops. Its growing availability in various forms like tinctures, capsules and lotions makes it easy to consume and use as well.

A lot of people have used and testified to the efficacy of hemp CBD products but you may be among the numerous fans of CBD who are still confused about the most effective forms, how much to take and how best to use it

First, A Brief Overview of CBD 

Cannabinoids are chemical compounds occurring naturally in our body’s endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoids also are found in certain plants, and are capable of interacting with the cannabinoid receptors within the body.

CBD (or Cannabidiol) is one of the numerous (100+) cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant along with other beneficial compounds like terpenes and amino acids.  THC is another well known cannabinoid found in cannabis.

What Is The Difference Between CBD and THC?

The basic difference between CBD and THC is the ability of THC to make you high because it contains psychoactive elements while CBD doesn’t. 

There are two types of Cannabinoid receptors in our bodies, which are part of our endocannabinoid system. THC usually interacts with the CB1 receptors in our bodies that can elicit that feeling of ‘euphoria’, as well as effect pain tolerance. On the other hand, CBD interacts mostly with the CB2 receptors that illicit immune responses, reduce pain and inflammation and control sleep patterns and appetite.

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How CBD Works With Our Endocannabinoid System (ECS)

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an important network of receptors that allows us to connect with our immune system, nervous system and organs. According to research, the ECS responds to the body’s endocannabinoids produced within the body, as well as phytocannabinoids from plants like cannabis.

When CBD is introduced into the body, it can then help diminish certain symptoms. It does this by indirectly interacting on the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the different parts of the body. When CBD stimulates our ECS, it promotes homeostasis (balance) and reduces pain sensation and inflammation, regulates mood disorders and helps a host of many other symptoms.

So What Is The Entourage Effect

Research has shown that when medical substances from plants are taken in their whole and natural state, they tend to be more potent. The entourage effect is in action when the numerous components of the cannabis plant act in synergy on the body to maximize their healing effects. This is as opposed to the milder effect of using them solo, or isolated.

It is like bringing different individuals together to form a team for a project. Each team member will bring his/her expertise to make the project a success. With the cannabis plant compounds, there is a multiplier effect. The combination of the various natural compounds produces a more effective and stronger solution when they work together. We are not confined to the sum of each part but more so the amplification of the different components.

In essence, the most effective cannabis therapies use a combination of compounds, mostly full-spectrum and broad-spectrum CBD, for an enhanced medicinal experience. This is often preferable over using a CBD isolate. For example, CBD restrains the influence of THC on the body while terpenes in cannabis will add to the effects and as well as determining the taste and smell of the cannabis strain.

Poor quality control and inconsistency of botanical extracts however pose challenges to the entourage effect.

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Full Spectrum CBD vs. Broad Spectrum CBD vs. CBD Isolate 

As mentioned above, you may have come across these “spectrum” terms on CBD product packaging, but many consumers may not understand the differences.

Simply put, CBD isolate is a single molecule product containing only CBD. It is the purest form of the compound extracted from the plant and does not contain any other natural compounds of the plant. Its advantage lies in the availability of high concentration of the CBD per serving. It allows users experience full benefits of CBD but lacks the entourage effect.

Full-spectrum CBD is an extract that contains all the active naturally-occurring phytochemicals from hemp like CBD, THC (negligible amount), terpenes, amino acids and so on. They synergistically work together to produce the entourage effect. Even though full-spectrum CBD is considered non-psychoactive, a consistent user may feel slight sedation effects and may also test positive in a drug test.

Broad spectrum CBD, on the other hand, is made up of all the components similar to full spectrum CBD, but minus THC. Broad spectrum CBD also produce the entourage effect but without the chance of any THC entering the system.

While each CBD spectrum has its pros and cons, we feel that broad-spectrum CBD is the best of both worlds, sort of between a full-spectrum CBD and CBD isolate. All Tessera Naturals products are made using the highest quality broad spectrum CBD from organically grown USA hemp. We conduct 3rd party lab testing in order to ensure potency of CBD and other cannabinoids and terpenes, as well as confirming our hemp oil is THC free.

Key Takeaways

  • CBD and THC are just two of the 100+ cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant, along with other beneficial compounds like minor cannabinoids, terpenes and amino acids.
  • CBD and other cannabinoids found in cannabis can interact with our endocannabinoid system to promote homeostasis and healing efforts.
  • The many compounds in cannabis (cannabinoids, terpenes, amino acids) work synergistically and amplify the benefits of one another when consumed together.
  • Full spectrum and broad spectrum CBD produce the entourage effect, while CBD isolate does not.
  • Broad spectrum CBD is a good choice for those interested in the entourage effect, but do not wish to consume any THC.

CBD Extraction Methods Explained

How is CBD Extracted From Hemp?

While it may not seem important, the different methods of how CBD oil is extracted from hemp can produce highly different end products and have different impacts on your health. It’s important to ask about and understand how different companies extract their CBD oil from hemp.

The growing awareness of the benefits of CBD oil has helped it become extremely popular in the past few years. CBD is produced and manufactured into edibles, oils, and topical creams — all of which offer their specific ways of aiding people.

What is CBD Extract?

CBD, also known as cannabidiol, has become the most highly debated and sought-after component from the cannabis plant in recent years. It has become known worldwide for its many beneficial qualities which range from helping people deal with mental illness to helping cancer patients deal with nausea (a common side effect from chemotherapy treatment). It has been trusted by many for centuries and is currently in an uphill battle with some political parties who assume that CBD oil is just like its cousin THC. Luckily, research is proving them wrong. 

Besides understanding the different methods of extracting CBD from hemp, you’ll want to take into consideration the differences between full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, and CBD isolates.  More on that later.

As ties between the FDA and CBD companies continue to develop, you will also want to take into consideration which CBD extracts fall in and out of legal lines.  For example, CBD can be extracted from either hemp or marijuana, but only hemp-derived CBD is legal under the 2018 farm bill.  Marijuana and its derivatives remain federally illegal.

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Why Do We Need To Extract CBD?

The reason why you want to extract CBD is to separate the cannabinoid and make a concentrated form that is consumable for humans.  

Chewing on raw cannabis is not only unpleasant, but it will not have the same desired effect as a concentrated extract.  In order for the cannabinoids in cannabis to be effective, they must be decarboxylated (applying heat).

Drying cannabis will cause partial decarboxylation, and smoking/vaping it will instantaneously decarboxylate the cannabinoids, making them absorbable through inhalation.

Ingesting cannabinoids on the other hand, through oils, capsules and edibles, require decarboxylation in order for our bodies to take advantage of them through digestion.

Also, cannabis in its raw herbal form can host a wide variety of microbes which can present a health risk if not properly extracted and purified. The extraction process eliminates these and also removes undesirable compounds such as plant waxes and lipids, which might be harmful for our health.

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Start with Organic USA Hemp

The entire process starts with finding a rich CBD plant source to extract from. Tessera Naturals understands that, which is why we use organically grown hemp from the USA for our process.  

It is important to be mindful of where your chosen company extracts their CBD oil from as some hemp sources can be contaminated with toxic chemicals such as pesticides, or contain a bevy of undesirable chemicals or heavy metals.

Proper extractions also make sure that nearly all of the desirable components in the plant are maintained.  

Three Common Methods to Extract CBD

Extraction methods vary by their end result health profiles and their impact on the environment.  Most companies use the following three methods of extracting CBD.

1. Solvent

Solvent extraction involves the use of ethanol, butane, propane, isopropyl, or alcohol to extract the CBD. It is one of the least expensive options and is also fast and easy to do. It is also one of the most dangerous due to the highly flammable contents of the liquids. 

This method dissolves the plant waxes which themselves hold quite a few nutrients. It extracts not only the cannabinoids but also the chlorophyll — which gives some products a bitter taste. 

To begin the liquid solvent process, flowers and plant trimmings are put into a container. Then the solvent is soaked or run through the material, stripping it of the cannabinoids. Then the evaporation process leaves the concentrated cannabinoids in an oil form.

Besides being an extremely dangerous process, the downside is that the solvent residue can be toxic if they are not completely eliminated during the evaporation step. Some studies have found traces of naphtha hydrocarbons or petroleum residue in CBD products that have been extracted using solvents.

2. Olive Oil

The olive oil extraction process is the oldest method of extracting CBD. Many CBD lovers attest to it being the best. It is the safest method, doesn’t cost a lot, and it’s simple to do.

The process begins with the raw plant materials being decarboxylated (heated) to the desired temperature for a specific amount of time so that the chemicals in the plant are activated. Olive oil and the plant material are combined and heated again. This is when the cannabinoids are extracted. The olive oil isn’t evaporated, so the resulting extract isn’t as concentrated as the other methods. The dosage the consumer takes will have to compensate for this as well.

The issue with olive oil extraction arises with its highly perishable nature. It must be kept in a cool, dark area and therefore doesn’t work well for the needs of many CBD producers and consumers.

3. CO2 Extraction

As CBD companies have begun to flourish internationally, the CO2 method of extracting CBD has become the most advanced and advised way of completing the process. It is quite an investment as it is the most expensive and complex of the methods, but if done successfully, it makes a potent, safe and chlorophyll-free extraction. (Yummy!) 

The only downfall to this CO2 extraction process is that it’s a big investment for CBD producers and demands that they dig deep into their pockets.  Many premium CBD producers (including Tessera Naturals) are willing to use this method because it brings a much safer and higher quality product to their consumers. It also does not remove the beneficial contents of the plan as much as other methods do.  Lastly, the final product has a much lower chance of having contaminants. 

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Typically, the CO2 extraction process is done by using a “closed-loop extractor.” The machine contains three chambers. The first one holds pressurized, solid CO2 or dry ice; the second chamber has dried help plant material in it; the final chamber separates the resulting product.

From the first chamber, CO2 is pumped into the second chamber, which takes on the form of supercritical CO2 — between a gas and liquid state. The supercritical CO2 then runs through the materials and extracts the cannabinoids. It’s then pumped into the final chamber where the CO2 rises to the top. This leaves the extract at the bottom and isolated from the CO2. 

Which CBD Extraction Method is Best? 

While there are pros and cons to each extraction method, we feel that CO2 extraction is by far the most beneficial.  It consistently produces the highest quality concentration of CBD and is one of the safest extraction methods, leaving behind no toxic residue.

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What Happens After Extraction?

After the raw oil is extracted, the extract is further refined through a process called “winterization”. This step removes any solvents, chlorophyll, waxes or unwanted fats (lipids), resulting in a clean hemp oil with 70-90% CBD, minor cannabinoids, and terpenes.

NOTE: There is a recent increase in another type of refinement process referred to as CBD Distillate.  The distillation process involves applying high heat (boiling point) to the raw extracted oil to further separate the compounds and refine the extract through a distillation chamber. While resulting in a very pure and potent form of CBD, the main drawback of CBD distillate is that it does not contains many terpenes (if any) that work in synergy with other cannabinoids, thus missing out on the entourage effect. Due to this shortcoming, we feel that CO2 extraction and liquid chromatography is superior.

End product

As mentioned earlier, there are various types of CBD oils that can be produced with the hemp extract.

Full-spectrum CBD contains all of the cannabinoids and other natural compounds found in cannabis such as terpenes and amino acids (including trace amounts of THC).

Broad-spectrum CBD is similar to full spectrum, but removes the trace amounts of THC. 

To create broad spectrum CBD, the full spectrum CBD extract goes through an additional specialized process called liquid chromatography, which selectively binds to the THC and removes it at low temperatures, while the remaining synergistic cannabinoids, terpenes and amino acids remain intact.

CBD isolate contains a pure concentration of CBD only (99%), so it’s ideal for those who need high doses of CBD, but it does not contain any other cannabinoids and terpenes, thus lacking the “entourage effect”. 

To create CBD isolate, the extract is cooled and purified into a crystalline isolate form, which takes the form of a white, flavorless powder.

All Tessera Naturals products are broad spectrum CBD oil.  We feel this allows the benefits of consuming full spectrum CBD, but without the chance of ingesting any THC.

Key Takeaways

  • CBD must be extracted from raw cannabis in order to be most effective when ingested.
  • Solvent extraction can be efficient and inexpensive, but can potentially contain toxic residue.
  • Olive oil extraction is safe and inexpensive, but will have low yields and will result in a highly perishable product.
  • CO2 extraction, while most expensive and complex, will create the highest quality, safest CBD end product for the consumer.
  • After extraction, the CBD oil must be refined and purified to create either a full spectrum CBD, broad spectrum CBD, or a CBD isolate.
  • Broad spectrum will be the most appealing to the greater amount of people due to the benefits of full spectrum CBD and the “entourage effect”, but without the chances of consuming any THC.
  • In the end, the importance shouldn’t be placed on method, but more of whether it was done correctly.
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